What works in citizenship and values education: Attitudes of high school leavers towards the Itorero training in post-genocide Rwanda
AbstractThis piece of research contributes to the existing literature on citizenship and values education practices in post-conflict contexts. It set out to investigate ways in which high school leavers (HSLs) appreciate Itoreroâ€“ a non-formal citizenship and values education platform in post-genocide Rwanda. The purpose of the study was also to establish the best predictor of the success of Itorero training according to HSLsâ€™ perceptions. The research to be reported here used a survey questionnaire and focus groups with HSLs. It is revealed that while HSLs are happy with the content, they seem to be immensely displeased with the quality of trainers, organization and training environment. The article also shows that the factor â€˜trainersâ€™ consistutes the best predictor of the success of Itorero. This finding raises serious concerns because Itorero trainers are seen as deficient in number of ways. The article raises the question of trainersâ€™ preparation in citizenship and values education. We argue that there is a tendency to neglect this aspect and assume that everyonecan contribute to citizenship and values education. We maintain that the quality of trainers is critical for optimal results in citizenship and values education.Â
Adejumobi, S. 2001. Citizenship, rights and the problem of conflicts and civil wars in Africa. Human Rights Quarterly 23: 148â€“170.
Amadeo, J., J. Torney-Purta, R. Lehmann, V. Husfeldt and R. Nikolova, R. 2002. Civic knowledge and engagement: An IEA study of upper secondary students in sixteen countries. Amsterdam: IEA.
Arthur, J., I. Davies, and C. Hahn, eds. 2008. The SAGE handbook of education for citizenship and democracy. London: SAGE.
Bailey, R. 1998. Teaching values and citizenship across the curriculum. Glasgow: Kogan Page Limited.
BÃ®rzÃ©a, C., D. Kerr, R. Mikkelsen, I. Froumin, B. Losito, M. Pol, and M, Sardo. 2004. All-European study on education for democratic citizenship policies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Carr, W. 1991. Education for citizenship. British Journal of Educational Studies 39 (4): 373â€“385.
Chioncel, N., and T. Jansen. 2004. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe â€“ A Central and Eastern European perspective. Project RE-ETGACE.
CodÃ¨re, H. 1973. The biography of an African society. Rwanda 1900â€“1960. Tervuren: MusÃ©e Royal de lâ€™Afrique Centrale.
Davies, L. 2005. Teaching about conflict through citizenship education. International Journal of Citizenship and Teacher Education 1 (2): 17â€“34.
Eurydice. 2005. The information network on education in Europe. Citizenship education at school in Europe. Brussels: European Commission.
Hess, R. D., and J. Torney. 1967. The development of political attitudes in children. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
Huddleston, T. 2005. Teacher training in citizenship education: Training for a new subject or for a new kind of subject? Journal of Social Science Education 4 (3): 50â€“63.
Kabwete Mulinda, C. 2002. La gÃ©nÃ©alogie de lâ€™idÃ©e du peuplement du Rwanda: considÃ©rations sur lâ€™autochtonie ou lâ€™allochtonie des Rwandais [The genealogy of the idea of settlement in Rwanda: Considerations on indigenousness or allochthony of Rwandans]. In Peuplement du Rwanda. Enjeux et perspectives [Peopleâ€™s settlement in Rwanda: Challenges and prospects], edited by F. Rutembesa, E. Ntaganda, and J. Murwanashyaka, 49â€“72. Butare : Editions de lâ€™UniversitÃ© Nationale du Rwanda.
Kerr, D. 1999. Citizenship education in the curriculum: An international review. School Field 10 (3/4): 5â€“32.
Kim, H. R. 2013. â€œCitizenship education in comparative perspective: Cross-national variation in the effects of family background on adolescentsâ€™ civic outcomesâ€. PhD diss., University of California.
Law NÂ° 41/2013 of 16/06/2013 establishing the National Itorero Commission and determining its mission, organization and functioning, Rwanda Official Gazette NÂ° 29 of 22 July 2013.
Lewin, K. 1951. Field theory in social sciences. New York: Harper and Row.
Maison des Jeunes de Kimisagara. 2008. Rapport de la recherche sur lâ€™ecole traditionnelle du Rwanda (Itorero) [Report of a Research on the Rwandan traditional school (Itorero)]. Kigali: Author.
Mgbako, C. 2005. Ingando solidarity camps: Reconciliation and political indoctrination in post-genocide Rwanda. Harvard Human Rights Journal 18: 201-224.
MINEDUC (Ministry of Education). 2008. Social studies curriculum, Grade 1â€“6. Kigali: Author.
Ndaruhutse, E. 2008. â€œLes compagnies â€˜Amatoreroâ€™ au Rwanda ancien et contemporainâ€ [â€˜Amatoreroâ€™ camps in ancient and contemporary Rwanda]. Honours research project, Kigali Institute of Education.
NIC (National Itorero Commission). 2011. National Itorero Commission strategy. Kigali: Author.
NIC (National Itorero Commission). 2012. Volunteerism policy paper. Kigali: Author.
NURC (National Unity and Reconciliation Commission). 2009. Itorero ryâ€™Igihugu [National Itorero]. Policy Note and Strategic Plan. Kigali: Author.
Oliver, D., and D. Heater. 1994. The foundations of citizenship. Hertfordshire: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Prunier, G. 1995. The Rwanda crisis. History of a genocide. Columbia University Press.
Quaynor, L. J. 2015. Researching citizenship education in Africa: Considerations from Ghana and Liberia. Research in Comparative and International Education 10 (1): 120â€“134.
Ramphele, M. 2001. Citizenship challenges for South Africa's young democracy. Daedalus 130(1): 1â€“17.
Riesenberg, P. 1992. Citizenship in the western tradition: Plato to Rousseau. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Schulz, W., J. Ainley, J. Fraillon, D. Kerr and B. Losito. 2010. ICCS 2009 international report: Civic knowledge, attitudes and engagement among lower secondary school students in thirty-eight countries. Amsterdam: IEA Secretariat.
Schulz, W., J. Fraillon, J. Ainley, B. Losito, and D. Kerr. 2008. International civic and citizenship education study: Assessment framework. Amsterdam: IEA.
Sundberg, M. 2014. Training for model citizenship: An ethnography of civic education and state-making in Rwanda. PhD diss., Uppsala University.
Torney, J. V., A. N. Oppenheim and R. F. Farnen. 1975. Civic education in ten countries: An empirical study. Stockholm/New York: Almqvist & Wiksell International / John Wiley and Sons.
Torney-Purta, J., C. H. Barber, and W. K. Richardson. 2005. How teachers' preparation relates to students' civic knowledge and engagement in the United States: Analysis from the IEA civic education study. CIRCLE Fact Sheet. Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), University of Maryland.
Torney-Purta, J., R. Lehmann, H. Oswald, and W. Schulz. 2001. Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and engagement at age fourteen. Amsterdam: IEA Secretariat.
Van Gunsteren, H. 1998. A theory of citizenship: Organizing plurality in contemporary democracies. Westview Press.
Vansina, J. 2004. Antecedents to modern Rwanda: The Nyiginya kingdom. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Walker, D. A. 1976. The IEA Six Subject Survey: An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries. Stockholm/New York: Almqvist & Wiksell International / John Wiley and Sons.
Wayne, R. E. 2004. Negotiating the politics of citizenship education. Political Science and Politics 37 (2): 249â€“251.
Copyright (c) 2018 Sylvestre Nzahabwanayo, Joseph Jinja Divala
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This journal is an open access journal, and the authorsÂ and journal should be properly acknowledged, when works are cited.
Authors, copyright holders, may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, theses, dissertations, conferences and conference papers.Â
A copy of the authorsâ€™ publishers version may also be hosted on the following websites:
- Non-commercial personal homepage or blog.
- Institutional webpage.
- Authors Institutional Repository.
The following notice should accompany such a posting on the website: â€œThis is an electronic version of an article published in SAJHE, Volume XXX, number XXX, pages XXXâ€“XXXâ€, DOI.Â Authors should also supply a hyperlink to the original paper or indicate where the original paper (http://www.journals.ac.za/index.php/SAJHE) may be found.
Authors publishers version, affiliated with the Stellenbosch University will be automatically deposited in the University Institutional Repository SUNScholar.
Articles as a whole, may not be re-published with another journal.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0