Formulation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for the Control of Key Pests of Grapevine: A Review


Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are insect parasites that are used successfully as biological controlagents against key pest insects of grapevine. To achieve low chemical residues and the sustainableproduction of grapes, it is important that biological control agents such as entomopathogenic nematodesfor the control of grapevine insect pests be incorporated in an integrated pest management system forgrape production. However, the commercialisation and large-scale use of EPNs is limited by their shortshelf life in formulations and in storage, thus leading to poor quality and reduced efficacy against insectsin the field. In South Africa, interest in the use of EPNs within an integrated pest management system hasgrown over the past two decades, therefore developing a formulation technique with an acceptable storagesurvival period, while maintaining infectivity, is essential. Moreover, the successful control of insects usingEPNs is only achievable when the formulated product reaches the end user in good condition. This reviewis focused on the different types of formulations required for storage and ease of transport, together withthe application formulation for above-ground pests and the factors affecting them. The quality assessment,storage and handling of formulated EPNs are also discussed.

Author Biographies

A. Nxitywa, Stellenbosch University
Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology
A.P. Malan, Stellenbosch University
Conservation Ecology and Entomology


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