Formulation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for the Control of Key Pests of Grapevine: A Review


Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are insect parasites that are used successfully as biological control
agents against key pest insects of grapevine. To achieve low chemical residues and the sustainable
production of grapes, it is important that biological control agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes
for the control of grapevine insect pests be incorporated in an integrated pest management system for
grape production. However, the commercialisation and large-scale use of EPNs is limited by their short
shelf life in formulations and in storage, thus leading to poor quality and reduced efficacy against insects
in the field. In South Africa, interest in the use of EPNs within an integrated pest management system has
grown over the past two decades, therefore developing a formulation technique with an acceptable storage
survival period, while maintaining infectivity, is essential. Moreover, the successful control of insects using
EPNs is only achievable when the formulated product reaches the end user in good condition. This review
is focused on the different types of formulations required for storage and ease of transport, together with
the application formulation for above-ground pests and the factors affecting them. The quality assessment,
storage and handling of formulated EPNs are also discussed.

Author Biographies

A. Nxitywa, Stellenbosch University

Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology

A.P. Malan, Stellenbosch University

Conservation Ecology and Entomology


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