Accumulation Pattern of Flavonoids in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes Grown in a Low-Latitude and High-Altitude Region
AbstractParticular climate conditions in a low-latitude and high-altitude region endow grape berries with distinctive
quality characteristics. So far, few reports have been concerned with the formation of berry flavour in such a
region. This study aimed to investigate the accumulation pattern of flavonoids in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet
Sauvignon grape berries growing at different altitudes of the highland in southwest China in two consecutive
vintages. In addition to the 3-O-monoglucosides and 3-O-acyl monoglucosides of the five main anthocyanidins
(delphinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin and malvidin), some uncommon anthocyanins, such as three
diglucosides of anthocyanidins and pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, were detected in the grape berries. Higher
altitude cultivation greatly promoted the production of anthocyanins and flavonols, particularly cyanidintype
anthocyanins and quercetin-type flavonols from the F3’H branch of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.
Flavan-3-ols from both branches were comparatively less influenced by vineyard altitude. Vintage in this
high-altitude region also had a dramatic influence on the accumulation of flavonoids. Most of the anthocyanin
and flavonol components were affected more by vineyard altitude than by vintage, whereas the accumulation
of flavan-3-ols differed mainly between vintages. The present data will not only improve the understanding
of flavonoid accumulation in grapes from a high-altitude region with different climates, but also provide
practical guidance for the production of high-quality grapes and wine.
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