Evolution of Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Profile during Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration and Subsequent Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

Ó.A. Muñoz-Bernal, A.J. Coria-Oliveros, A.A. Vazquez-Flores, L.A. de la Rosa, J.A. Núñez-Gastélum, J. Rodrigo-García, J.F. Ayala-Zavala, E. Alvarez-Parrilla

Abstract


The phenolic compound profile and content of red wines are modified during the maceration-fermentation process by several factors that alter the extractability of the compounds and by reactions that phenolic compounds undergo, and can be directly related to the quality of the final wine and its beneficial effects on the consumer. The aim of this study was to determine the change in phenolic content and profile during cold pre-fermentative maceration and fermentation without the removal of grape pomace. Total phenolics,
flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometric methods, and the phenolic profile was determined by HPLC-MS on each day of the maceration-fermentation process. The results showed a variation in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity over time, but the final phenolic content showed no significative difference compared with the initial content (1 268 mg GAE/L and 1 115 mg GAE/L respectively). The phenolic profile showed that flavonoids were the
principal compounds in wine and that they increased at the end of the winemaking. Condensed tannins also increased during fermentation, while anthocyanins and some phenolic acids decreased at the end of the process. The final content of phenolic compounds was similar to the initial one, but there was a change in the different fractions of phenolic compounds at the end of fermentation.


Keywords


Phenolic compounds; fermentation; maceration; HPLC-MS; antioxidant capacity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aleixandre-Tudo, J.L., Weightman, Panzeri V., Nieuwoudt, H.H., du Toit, W,J., 2015. Effect of skin contact before and during alcoholic fermentation on the chemical and sensory profile of South African Chenin blanc white wines. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 36, 3, 366–377.

Bai, B., He, F., Yang, L., Chen, F., Reeves, M.J., Li, J., 2013. Comparative study of phenolic compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon wines made in traditional and Ganimede fermenters. Food Chemistry 141, 4, 3984–3992.

de Beer, D., Joubert, E., Marais J., Manley, M., 2017. Maceration Before and During Fermentation: Effect on Pinotage Wine Phenolic Composition, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Objective Colour Parameters. South African Journal of Enology & Viticulture 27, 2, 137–150.

Bimpilas, A., Tsimogiannis, D., Balta-Brouma, K., Lymperopoulou, T., Oreopoulou, V., 2015. Evolution of phenolic compounds and metal content of wine during alcoholic fermentation and storage. Food Chemistry 178, 164–171.

Bindon, K.A., McCarthy, M.G., Smith, P.A., 2014. Development of wine colour and non-bleachable pigments during the fermentation and ageing of (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) Cabernet Sauvignon wines differing in anthocyanin and tannin concentration. LWT - Food Science and Technology 59, 2, Part 1, 923–932.

Burin, V.M., Falcão, L.D., Chaves, E.S., Gris, E.F., Preti, L.F., Bordignon-Luiz, M.T., 2010. Phenolic composition, colour, antioxidant activity and mineral profile of Cabernet Sauvignon wines. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 45, 7, 1505–1512.

Burin, V. M., Freitas Costa, L.L., Rosier, J.P., Bordignon-Luiz, M.T., 2011. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from two different clones, characterization and evolution during bottle ageing. LWT - Food Science and Technology 44, 9, 1931–1938.

Casassa, F.L., Beaver, C.W., Mireles, C.W., Harbertson, J.F., 2013. Effect of extended maceration and ethanol concentration on the extraction and evolution of phenolics, colour components and sensory attributes of Merlot wines. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 19, 1, 25–39.

Chen, W.-K., He, F., Wang, Y.-X., Liu, X., Duan, C.-Q., Wang, J. 2018. Influences of Berry Size on Fruit Composition and Wine Quality of Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ Grapes. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 39, 67-76.

Cliff, M.A., King, M.C., Schlosser, J., 2007. Anthocyanin, phenolic composition, colour measurement and sensory analysis of BC commercial red wines. Food Research International 40, 1, 92–100.

Drosou, C., Kyriakopoulou, K., Bimpilas, A., Tsimogiannis, D., Krokida, M., 2015. A comparative study on different extraction techniques to recover red grape pomace polyphenols from vinification byproducts. Industrial Crops and Products 75, 141–149.

Dudonné, S., Vitrac, X., Coutiére, P., Woillez, M., Mérillon, J.M., 2009. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, 5, 1768–1774.

Falcao, L.D., De Revel, G., Perello, M.C., Moutsion, A., Zanus, M.C., Bordingon-Luiz, M.T., 2007. Survey of Seasonal Temperatures and Vineyard Altitude Influences on 2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, C13 Norisoprenoids, and the Sensory Profile of Brazilian Cabernet Sauvignon Wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, 3605–3612.

Figueiredo-Gonzalez, M., Cancho-Grande, B., Simal-Gandara, J., Teixeira, N., Mateus, N., De Freitas, V., 2014. The phenolic chemistry and spectrochemistry of red sweet wine-making and oak-aging. Food Chemistry 152, 522–530.

Floegel, A., Kim, D.O., Chung, S.J., Koo, S.I., Chun, O.K., 2011. Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24, 7, 1043–1048.

Font, I., Gudiño, P., Sánchez, A., , 2010. La industria vinícola mexicana y las políticas agroindustriales: panorama general. Redpol 2.

Fulcrand, H., Dueñas, M. Salas, E., Cheynier, V., 2006 . Phenolic Reactions during Winemaking and Aging. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 57, 3, 289 LP – 297.

Garaguso, I. & Nardini, M., 2015. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines Food Chemistry 179, 336–342.

Garrido, J. & Borges, F., 2013. Wine and grape polyphenols - A chemical perspective. Food Research International 54, 2, 1844-1858.

Gómez-Míguez, M., González-Miret, M.L., Heredia, F.J., 2007. Evolution of colour and anthocyanin composition of Syrah wines elaborated with pre-fermentative cold maceration. Journal of Food Engineering 79, 1, 271–278.

Góméz-Míguez, M. & Heredia, F.J., 2004. Effect of the maceration technique on the relationships between anthocyanin composition and objective color of Syrah wines Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, 16, 5117–5123.

González-Manzano, S., Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C., Santos-Buelga, C., 2004. Extraction of flavan-3-ols from grape seed and skin into wine using simulated maceration. Analytica Chimica Acta 513, 1, 283–289.

Granato, D., Santos, J.S., Maciel, L.G. Nunes, D.S., 2016. Chemical perspective and criticism on selected analytical methods used to estimate the total content of phenolic compounds in food matrices. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 80, 266-279.

Hanlin, R.L., Hrmova, Harbertson, J.F., Downey, M.O., 2010. Review: Condensed tannin and grape cell wall interactions and their impact on tannin extractability into wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 16, 1, 173–188.

Jackson, R.S., 2000. Chemical Constituents of Grapes and Wine In: Wine Science (Second Edition). Academic Press, San Diego 232–280.

Jiang, B. & Zhang, Z.-W.W., 2012. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China. Molecules 17, 8, 8804–8821.

Lee, J., Durst, R.W., Wrolstad, R.E., 2005. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: Collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International 88, 5, 1269–1278.

Li, Z., Pan, Q., Jin, Z., Mu, L., Duan, C., 2011. Comparison on phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from five wine-growing regions in China. Food Chemistry 125, 1, 77–83.

Lingua, M.S., Fabani, M.P., Wunderlin, D.A., Baroni, M. V., 2016a. In vivo antioxidant activity of grape, pomace and wine from three red varieties grown in Argentina: Its relationship to phenolic profile. Journal of Functional Foods 20, 332–345.

Lingua, M.S., Fabani, M.P.,Wunderlin, D.A., Baroni, M. V., 2016b. From grape to wine: Changes in phenolic composition and its influence on antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry 208, 228–238.

Marquez, A., Serratosa, M.P., Merida, J., 2014. Antioxidant activity in relation to the phenolic profile during the winemaking of sweet wines Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 49, 9, 2128–2135.

Moreno-Escamilla, J.O., de la Rosa, L.A., López-Díaz, J.A., Rodrigo-García, J., Núñez-Gastélum, J.A., Alvarez-Parrilla, E., 2015. Effect of the smoking process and firewood type in the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of red Jalapeño pepper during its transformation to chipotle pepper. Food Research International 76, 654–660.

Moreno-Montoro, M., Olalla-Herrera, M., Gimenez-Martinez, R., Navarro-Alarcon, M., Rufián-Henares, J.A., 2015. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Spanish commercial grape juices. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 38, 19–26.

O.I.V., 2016. Compendium of International Methods of Wine and Must Analysis. (2016th ed.). Vol. 1. O.I.V., Paris, France.

Padilha, C.V. da S., Miskinis, G.A., de Souza, M.E.A.O., Pereira, G.E., de Oliveira, D., Bordignon-Luiz, M.T., Lima, M. dos S., 2017. Rapid determination of flavonoids and phenolic acids in grape juices and wines by RP-HPLC/DAD: Method validation and characterization of commercial products of the new Brazilian varieties of grape. Food Chemistry 228, 106–115.

Paixão, N., Perestrelo, R., Marques, J.C., Câmara, J.S., 2007. Relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of red, rosé and white wines. Food Chemistry 105, 1, 204–214.

Panceri, C.P., De Gois, J.S., Borges, D., Bordignon-Luiz, M. T., 2015. Effect of grape dehydration under controlled conditions on chemical composition and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. LWT - Food Science and Technology 63, 1, 228–235.

Pimentel, F.A., Nitzke, J.A., Klipel, C.B., Jong, E.V. De., 2010. Chocolate and red wine - A comparison between flavonoids content. Food Chemistry 120, 1, 109–112.

Puškaš, V.S., Kovač, V.M., Dodić, J.M., Dodić, S.N., 2005. Effect of Fermentation Conditions on Content of Phenolic Compounds in Red Wine. Acta Periodica Technologica 266, 61–69.

Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Glories, Y., et al., 2006. Handbook of Enology. (2nd ed.). Vol. 2. Wiley and sons, England.

Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Dubourdieu, D., Glories, Y., Maujean, A., 2006. Handbook of enology. (2nd ed.). Vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, England.

Robbins, K.S., Gong, Y., Wells, M.L., Greenspan, P., Pegg, R.B., 2015. Investigation of the antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of U . S . pecans. Journal of Functional Foods 15, 11–22.

Rohr, G.E., Meier, B., Sticher, O., 2000. Analysis of procyanidins. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry 21, 497–570.

Shahidi, F. & Zhong, Y., 2015. Measurement of antioxidant activity Journal of Functional Foods 18, 757–781.

Smith, P.A., Mcrae, J.M., Bindon, K.A., 2015. Impact of winemaking practices on the concentration and composition of tannins in red wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 21, 601–614.

Soto Vázquez, E., Río Segade, S., Orriols Fernández, I., 2010. Effect of the winemaking technique on phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics in young red wines. European Food Research and Technology 231, 5, 789–802.

Trejo-Pech, C.O., Arellano-Sada, R., Coelho, A.M., Weldon, R.N., 2012. Is the Baja California, Mexico, Wine Industry a Cluster? American Journal of Agricultural Economics 94, 2, 569–575.

Villaño, D., Fernández-Pachón, M.S., Troncoso, A.M., García-Parrilla, M.C., 2006. Influence of enological practices on the antioxidant activity of wines. Food Chemistry 95, 3, 394–404.

Zanoni, B., Siliani, S., Canuti, V., Rosi, I., Bertuccioli, M., 2010. A kinetic study on extraction and transformation phenomena of phenolic compounds during red wine fermentation. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45, 10, 2080–2088.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21548/41-1-3778

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.