Biological Deacidification Strategies for White Wines
Traditionally, the use of malolactic fermentation gives rise to microbiologically stable
wines. However, malolactic fermentation is not free from possible collateral effects that
can take place under specific scenarios. The present work tests the influence of
different biological deacidification strategies on the volatile and non-volatile components of
white must from Germany. The study compared mixed cultures of Lachancea thermotolerans and
Schizosaccharomyces pombe and a pure culture of Sc. pombe to the classical biological
deacidification process performed by lactic acid bacteria. Strains of Oenococcus oeni and
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum were co- or sequentially inoculated with S. cerevisiae to carry out
malolactic fermentation. Different fermentation treatments took place at a laboratory scale of 0.6
L in vessels of 0.75 L. The instrumental techniques Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy
(FT-MIR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
(GC-MS) were used to evaluate different chemical parameters in the final wines. The results showed
the ability of Sc. pombe to consume malic acid in combination with L. thermotolerans without using
S. cerevisiae or lactic acid bacteria. Fermentations involving Sc. pombe consumed all the
malic acid, although they reduced the concentrations of higher alcohols, fatty acids and acetic
acid. Simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations reduced malic acid by about 80%, while
classical malolactic fermentation reduced it by 100%. Fermentations involving L. thermotolerans
produced the highest lactic acid, ester and glycerol concentrations.
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