Determination of Bioactive Compounds and Mineral Contents of Seedless Parts and Seeds of Grapes

  • M.M. Özcan Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University
  • F. Al Juhaimi Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh
  • M. Gülcü Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Viticultural Research Station 59100, Süleymanpaşa, Tekirdag
  • N. Uslu Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya
  • Ü. Geçgel Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Namık Kemal University, Tekirdağ


In this study, phenolic compounds, minerals, total flavonoids, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the seedless parts (pulp+skin) and seeds of table and wine grapes were determined. Also, the total oil, tocopherol contents and fatty acid composition of seed oils of table and wine grapes were investigated. The highest total phenolic content of the grape pulp was found in Trakya ilkeren (199.063mg/100 g), while total flavonoid and antioxidant activity of the pulp was determined at a high level in Red Globe (6.810 mg/g, 90.948%). Antioxidant activity, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of grape seeds varied between 86.688 and 90.974%, 421.563 and 490.625 mg GAE/100 g, and 90.595 and 145.595 mg/g respectively (p < 0.05). Generally, the main phenolic compounds of all grape pulps and seeds were gallic acid, 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid, (+)-catechin and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. In addition, the oil contents of grape seeds ranged from 5.275 (Çavuş) to 13.881% (Çınarlı karası) (p < 0.05). The major fatty acids of grape seed oils were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid. The seed oil of the Trakya ilkeren variety was rich in tocopherols in comparison with the other varieties. The major minerals of both the seedless parts and the seeds were determined as K, Ca, P, S, Mg.


Download data is not yet available.



Akın, A. & Altındişli, A., 2011. Determination of fatty acid composition and lipid content of some grape cultivar seeds in Turkey. Biyol. Bil. Araş. Derg. 4, 13-15.

Anastasiadi, M., Pratsinis, H., Kletsas, D., Skaltsounis, A. & Haroutounian, S.A.2010 Bioactive non-coloured polyphenols content of grapes, wines and vinification by-products: Evaluation of the antioxidant activities of their extracts. Food Res. Int. 43, 805–813.

AOAC 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15 th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

Ashraf, K.M. & Taylor, L.T. 2004. Sequential fractionation of grape seeds into oils, polyphenols, and procyanidins via a single system employing CO2 based fluids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 2440-2444.

Aykut, O. 2002. Ülkemiz Ekonomisinde Yeri Olan Üzüm Çeşitleri ile Ürünlerinin Mineral Madde İçerikleri ve Değişimi Etkileyen Faktörler (Thesis of Master). Ankara University, Institute of Science and Technology, Ankara.

Cemeroğlu, B. 1992. Fundamental Fruit and Vegetable Analysis Methods in Industry (Meyve ve Sebze İşleme Endüstrisinde Temel Analiz Metotları), Biltav Yay., Ankara. (in Turkish).

Citil, O.B., Sezgin,M., Guler, G.O. & Aktümsek, A., 2010. Fatty acid compositions of some feed raw materials in poultry diets. Asian J. Chem 22, 3785-3792.

Crews, C., Hough, P., Godeard, J., Brereton, P., Lees, M., Guiet, S., Winkelmann, W. 2006. Quantitation of the main constituents of some authentic grape-seed oils of different origin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 6261-6265.

Gomez-Alonso, S., Garcia-Romero, E., Hermosin-Gutierrez, I. 2007. HPLC anlysis of diverse grape and wine phenolics using direct injection and multidetection by DAD and flourescence. J. Food Comp. Analysis 20, 618-626.

Gök-Tangolar, S., Özoğul, Y., Tangolar, S.& Torun, A. 2009. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 60(1),32-39.

Göktürk Baydar, N., Özkan, G., Çetin, E.S. 2007. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts. Grasas y Aceites 58, 29-33.

Hassanein, M.M.M.& Abedel-Razek, A.G. 2009.Chromatographic quantitation of some bioactive minor components in oils of wheat germ and grape seeds produced as by-products. J. Oleo Sci. 58, 227-233.

Hogan, S., Zhang, L., Li, J., Zoecklein, B., Zhou, K. 2009. Antioxidant properties and bioactive components of Norton (Vitis aestivalis) and Cabernet Franc (Vitis vinifera) wine grapes. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 42,1269–1274.

ISO-International Organization for S

Standardization,1978.Animal and vegetable fats and oils preperation of methyl esters of fatty acids,ISO.Geneve, Method ISO5509,1-6.

Kamel, B.B., Dawson, H., Kakuda, Y. 1985. Characteristics and composition of melon and grape seed oils and cakes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62 (5), 881-883.

Kim, H., Kim, S-G., Choi, Y., Jeong, H.S., Lee, J. 2008. Changes in tocopherols, tocotrienols and fatty acid contents in grape seed oils during oxidant. J. Am. Oil

Chem. Soc. 85, 487-489.

Ky, I., Lorrain, B., Kolbas, N., Crozier, A., Teissedre, P.L. 2014. Wine by-products: phenolic characterization and antioxidant activity evaluation of grapes and grape pomaces from six different French grape varieties. Moleculs 19, 482-506.

Lee, S.K., Mbwambo, Z.H., Chung, H.S., Luyengi, L., Games, E.J.C., Mehta, R.G. 1998. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural products. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 1,35-46.

Nakamura, Y., Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y. 2003. Analysis of proanthocyanidins in grape seed extracts, health foods and grape seed oils. J. Health Sci. 49, 45-54.

Püskülcü, H. & İkiz, F., 1989. Introduction to Statistic. Bilgehan Press. p333. Bornova. İzmir,Turkey. (in Turkish)

Rockenbach, I.I., Gonzaga, L.V., Rizelio, V.M., Gonçalves, A., Genovese, M.I., Fett, R. 2011. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of seed and skin extracts of red grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) pomace from Brazilian winemaking. Food Res. Int. 44,897-901.

Sabir, A., Unver, A., Kara, Z.2012.The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 92,1982-1987.

Skujins, S., 1998. Handbook for ICP-AES (Varıan-Vista). A Short Guıde To Vista Series ICP-AES Operation.Varian Int.AGşZug.Version 1.0. pp 29. Switzerland.

Spika M.J., Kraljic, K., Koprivnjak, O., Skevin, D., Zanetic, M., Katalinic, M. 2015. Effect of agronomical factors and storage conditions on the tocopherol content of Oblica and Leccino virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 92,1293-1301.

Wie M, Sung J, Choi Y, Kim Y, Jeong H-S, Lee J (2009) Tocopherols and tocotrienols in grape seeds from 14 cultivars grown in Korea. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 11,1256-1258.

Yalcin, H., Kavuncuoglu, H., Ekici, L., Sagdic, O.2016. Determination of fatty acid composition, volatile components, physico-chemical and bioactive properties of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed and seed oil. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, (doi:10.1111/jfpp.12854).

Yılmaz, Y., Göksel, Z., Erdoğan, S.S., Öztürk, A., Atak, A., Özer, C.2015. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seed, skin and pulp parts of 22 grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars (4 common and 18 registered or candidate for registration). J. Food Process Preserv. 39,1682-1691.

Yoo,K.M., Lee, K.W., Park,J.B., Lee, H.J., Hwang, I.K. 2004. Variation in major antioxidants and total antioxidant activity of Yuzu (Citrusjunos SiebexTanaka) during maturation and between cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52,5907–5913.