Life design counselling with a learner from a vocational school setting
This article reports on the usefulness of life design counselling for a learner from a vocational school (learner with intellectual impairment) when making post school decisions. Vocational and/or career research and reporting on people with intellectual disability/impairment, especially in the South African education context, is limited and infrequent. A purposively sampled, single, intervention case study was utilised. Data generation and analysis were approached simultaneously. The intervention uncovered career/vocational themes significant to the participant. These themes highlighted the meaning he attributed to work and his role and purpose in the world of work. The intervention also proved effective in cultivating his self- and career-efficacy and adaptability. Post intervention, the participant more confidently pursued his passion and was able to identify and utilise resources more definitely. Further, longitudinal research with groups of people with different kinds of impairment from vocational school settings is needed to further examine the value of the intervention described here.
Armitage, A. 2007. “Mutual research designs: Redefining mixed methods research design.” In Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Vol. 5, 8.
Arvidsson, J., S. Widén, C. Staland-Nyman, and M. Tideman. 2016. “Post-school destination – A study of women and men with intellectual disability and the gender-segregated Swedish labor market.” Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities 13(3): 217‒226.
Bishop, M., J. Charema, T. Hawkings, E. Moswela, E. Mpofu, and K. Ntinda. 2010. “Career counselling of people with disability.” In Career Counselling: Methods that Work, ed. K. Maree, 34‒44. Cape Town, S. A.: Juta & Company.
Braun, V. and V. Clarke. 2006. “Using thematic analysis in psychology.” Qualitative Research in Psychology 3(2): 77‒101.
Byrne, D. 2016. Data Analysis and Interpretation. Sage Publications.
Coney, K. and C. Jameson-Warren. 2018. “The fourth industrial revolution: Helping students with disabilities to thrive. Luminate Prospects.” https://luminate.prospects.ac.uk/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-helping-students-with-disabilities-to-thrive.
Crous, S. 2012. “Possibility and limits of life design counselling with an abandoned adolescent.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria.
De Bruin, L. 2016. “Prof Maree is helping people find their life purpose.” https://www.up.ac.za/faculty-of-education/news/post_2351400-prof-maree-is-helping-people-find-their-life-purpose.
Dean, E. E., K. A. Shogren, M. L. Wehmeyer, B. Almire, and R. Mellenbruch. 2019. “Career design and development for adults with intellectual disability: A program evaluation.” Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders 3(2): 111‒118.
Department of Social Development. 2015. “Experiences of Persons with Disabilities in Learnerships, Higher Education Institutions and Public Entities: A pilot study.” http://www.dsd.gov.za/ index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=667&Itemid=39.
Department of Social Development/Department of women, children and people with disabilities/UNICEF. 2012. “Children with Disabilities in South Africa: A Situation Analysis: 2001‒2011. Executive summary.” https://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF_resources_ sitandisabilityes.pdf.
Dix, H. 2020. “Career Construction Theory and Life Writing.” Life Writing 17(1): 1‒7.
Ellingson, L. L. 2009. Engaging Crystallization in Qualitative Research: An Introduction. London, UK: Sage.
Foskett, K. 2014. Intellectual Disability in South Africa: A Paper funded by the National Lotteries Development Trust Fund. http://www.includid.org.za/Downloads/Intellectual%20Disability%20PDF.pdf.
Gibbons, M. M. and A. N. Hughes. 2016. “The high school.” In School counseling classroom guidance: Prevention, accountability, and outcomes, ed J. Ziomek-Daigle, 87‒116. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Guichard, J. 2009. “Self-constructing.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 75(3): 251‒258.
Hartung, P. J. 2015. “The career construction interview.” In Career Assessment: Qualitative Approaches, ed. M. McMahon and M. Watson, 115‒121. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.
Human Rights Watch. 2015. “‘Complicit in Exclusion’: South Africa’s Failure to Guarantee an Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities.” https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/08/18/complicit-exclusion/south-africas-failure-guarantee-inclusive-education-children.
IResearchNet. 2020. “Career Education in Career Development.” http://career.iresearchnet.com/career-development/career-education/#:~:text=Career%20education%20refers%20to%20the,and%20 satisfying%20part%20of%20life. (Accessed 2020).
Kim, J. H. 2015. Understanding Narrative Inquiry: The Crafting and Analysis of Stories as Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Larrinaga-Gonzalez, C. 2011. “Engaging crystallization in qualitative research: An introduction.” European Accounting Review 20(2): 422‒425.
Maree, J. G. 2012a. “A (guided) meta-reflection theory of career counselling: A case study.” South African Journal of Higher Education 26(1): 670‒690.
Maree, J. G. 2012b. “Career adapt-abilities scale-South African form: Psychometric properties and construct validity.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 80(3): 730‒733.
Maree, J. G. 2013a. Counselling for career construction: Connecting life themes to construct life portraits: Turning pain into hope. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.
Maree, J. G. 2013b. “Latest developments in career counselling in South Africa: Towards a positive approach.” South African Journal of Psychology 43(4): 409‒421. https://doi.org/10.1177/0081246313504691.
Maree, J. 2014. “Career construction with a gay client: A case study.” British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 42(4): 436‒449.
Maree, J. 2015. “Research on life design in (South) Africa: A qualitative analysis.” South African Journal of Psychology 45(3): 332‒348.
Maree, J. G. 2017a. “Opinion piece: Using career counselling to address work-related challenges by promoting career resilience, career adaptability, and employability.” South African Journal of Education 37(4): 1‒5.
Maree, J. G. 2017b. The career interest profile (CIP) (version 6): Obtaining qualitatively, a profile of personal career-life themes and interests. Randburg: JvR Psychometrics.
Maree, J. G. 2020. Innovating counselling for self- and career construction: Connecting conscious knowledge with subconscious insight. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Maree, J. G. and A. Twigge. 2016. “Career and self-construction of emerging adults: The value of life designing.” Frontiers in Psychology 6: 2041.
Maree, J. G. and C. Symington. 2015. “Life design counselling effects on the career adaptability of learners in a selective independent school setting.” Journal of Psychology in Africa 25(2): 143‒150.
Maree, J. G. and J. Che. 2020. “The effect of life-design counselling on the self-efficacy of a learner from an environment challenged by disadvantages.” Early Child Development and Care 190(6): 822‒838.
Maree, J. G. and J. M. Molepo. 2007. “Changing the approach to career counselling in a disadvantaged context: A case study.” Australian Journal of Career Development 16(3): 62‒70.
Maree, J. G. and Y. Hancke. 2011. “The value of life design counselling for an adolescent who stutters.” Journal of Psychology in Africa 21(3): 479‒485.
Maree, J. G. and Z. Pollard. 2009. “The impact of life design counselling on adolescents.” Journal of Psychology in Africa 19(2): 169‒175.
Maree, J. G., A. V. Cook, and L. Fletcher. 2018. “Assessment of the value of group-based counselling for career construction.” International Journal of Adolescence and Youth 23(1): 118‒132.
Maree, K. and C. N. Van der Westhuizen. 2009. Head start in designing research proposals in the social sciences. Cape Town, SA: Juta and Company Ltd.
Melendro, M., G. Campos, A. E. Rodríguez-Bravo, and R. D. Arroyo. 2020. “Young people’s autonomy and psychological well-being in the transition to adulthood: A pathway analysis.” Frontiers in Psychology 11: 1946‒1946.
Office of the Deputy President. 1997. White Paper on an Integrated National Disability Strategy. https://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/disability_2.pdf.
Patton, M. Q. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. New Delhi: Sage.
Ravitch, S. M. and N. M. Carl. 2016. Qualitative Research: Bridging the Conceptual, Theoretical and Methodological. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.
Savickas, M. 2012. “Life design: A paradigm for career intervention in the 21st century.” Journal of Counselling and Development 90(1): 13‒19.
Savickas, M. 2015a. Life-design counseling manual. S.I.: Out of print vendor.
Savickas, M. 2018. “Career counselling.” (Second, Ser. Theories of psychotherapy series). American Psychological Association. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.uplib.idm.oclc.org/lib/pretoria-ebooks/reader .action?docID=5525818.
Savickas, M. L. 2001. “A developmental perspective on vocational behaviour: Career patterns, salience, and themes.” International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1(1‒2): 49‒57.
Savickas, M. L. 2015b. “Designing projects for career construction.” In Counseling and Action, ed R. A. Young, J. F. Domene and L. Valach, 13‒32. New York, NY: Springer.
Savickas, M. L. 2019. Career counselling. 2nd Edition. American Psychological Association.
Savickas, M. L. and E. J. Porfeli. 2012. “Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 80(3): 661‒673.
Savickas, M. L., L. Nota, J. Rossier, J. P. Dauwalder, M. E. Duarte, J. Guichard, ... and A. E. Van Vianen. 2009. “Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 75(3): 239‒250.
Statistics South Africa. 2011. Stats SA profiles persons with disabilities. http://www.statssa.gov.za/ ?p=3180#:~:text=The%20national%20disability%20prevalence%20rate,85%2B%20reported%20having%20a%20disability.
Suleymanov, F. 2014. “Academic achievements of students with special needs in inclusive education.” Master's thesis.
Trent, A. and J. Cho. 2014. “Interpretation strategies: Appropriate concepts.” In The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research, ed P. Leavy, 639–657. Oxford University Press, USA.
Wagner, L. 2019. “Disabled people in the world in 2019: Facts and figures. Inclusive city maker.” https://www.inclusivecitymaker.com/disabled-people-in-the-world-in-2019-facts-and-figures/.
Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability. 2021. “Frequently asked questions.” https://wcfid.co.za/frequently-asked/#:~:text=in%20South%20Africa%3F-,A%3A%20It%20has %20been%20established%20that%20as%20many%20as%204,level%2F%20form%20of%20intellectual%20disability.
WHO see World Health Organization.
Wium, A-M. and B. Louw. 2018. “Mixed-methods research: A tutorial for speech-language therapists and audiologists in South Africa.” South African Journal of Communication Disorders 65(1): a573.
Wong, A. 2016. “How to escape the disability trap: What’s the best way to prepare special-needs students for the workforce?” https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/06/escaping-the-disability-trap/487070/.
World Health Organization. 2010 “Children’s right to family life.” http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/mental-health/news/news/2010/15/childrens-right-to-family-life/definition-intellectual-disability.
Zwane, S. L. and M. M. Malale. 2018. “Investigating barriers teachers face in the implementation of inclusive education in high schools in Gege branch, Swaziland.” African Journal of Disability 7.
Copyright (c) 2021 Samantha-Ella Ruiters, Jacobus G. Maree
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This journal is an open access journal, and the authorsÂ and journal should be properly acknowledged, when works are cited.
Authors, copyright holders, may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, theses, dissertations, conferences and conference papers.Â
A copy of the authors' publishers version may also be hosted on the following websites:
- Non-commercial personal homepage or blog.
- Institutional webpage.
- Authors Institutional Repository.
The following notice should accompany such a posting on the website: This is an electronic version of an article published in SAJHE, Volume XXX, number XXX, pages XXX “XXX", DOI. Authors should also supply a hyperlink to the original paper or indicate where the original paper (http://www.journals.ac.za/index.php/SAJHE) may be found.
Authors publishers version, affiliated with the Stellenbosch University will be automatically deposited in the University Institutional Repository SUNScholar.
Articles as a whole, may not be re-published with another journal.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0