I think I can, I know I can? Success orientation in adult learner academic self-directedness
A Learning 2.0 milieu requires an active learner mindset, where the learner initiates and directs the learning experience. Consequently, adult learner academic self-directedness is essential for facilitating successful lifelong learning. Learner self-directedness is of specific importance in South African higher education, since only about 12 per cent of qualifying matriculants will continue to higher education, and of those, only about 6 per cent will qualify within 6 years. Adult learner self-directedness broadly consists of contextual (learning environment), cognitive (agency) and behavioural (self-management) elements. Although researchers agree that a fairly well-developed capacity for self-directedness is a requirement for successful ODeL studies, there is a lack of research on adult learner self-directedness in the South African ODeL context. The adult learner self-directedness scale (ALSDS) was developed to investigate adult learners in an ODeL context. The scale produced four factors describing adult learner self-directedness in, of which success orientation seems to be the most noteworthy.
Arbuckle, J. L. 1995‒2009. Amos 18 user’s guide. Amos Development Corporation.
Botha, Jo-Anne. 2014. “The relationship between adult learner self-directedness and employability attributes ‒ an open distance learning perspective.” Master’s dissertation. Unisa. URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10500/13598.
Botha, J. and M. Coetzee. 2016. “The influence of biographical factors on adult learner self-directedness in an open distance learning environment.” The International Review of Open and Distributed Learning 17(4): 242‒263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i4.2345.
Botha, J., M. Coetzee, and M. Coetzee. 2015. “Exploring adult learners’ self-directedness in relation to their employability attributes in open distance learning.” Journal of Psychology in Africa 25(1): 65‒72.
Beach, P. 2017. “Self-directed online learning: A theoretical model for understanding elementary teachers’ online learning experiences.” Teaching and Teacher Education 61(2017): 60‒72. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.10.007.
Blashke, L. M. 2012. “Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A Review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning.” The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 13(1): 56‒71.
Brown, P. P. and C. S. Brown. 2015. “Transformative learning theory in gerontology: Nontraditional students.” Educational Gerontology 41(2): 136‒148. DOI:10.1080/03601277.2014.950492.
Cassidy, S. 2011. “Self-regulated learning in higher education: Identifying key component processes.” Studies in Higher Education 36(8): 989‒1000. DOI:10.1080/03075079.2010.503269.
Coetzee, M. and J. Botha. 2013. “Undergraduate students’ self-directedness in relation to their examination preparation styles in Open Distance Learning.” Progressio 35(2): 34‒57.
De Bruin, K. and G. P. de Bruin. 2011. “Development of the Learner Self-Directedness in the Workplace Scale.” S A Journal of Industrial Psychology / S A Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde 37(1): 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajipv1.926.
Department of Higher Education and Training. 2017. Statistics on Post-School Education and Training in South Africa: 2017.
DHET see Department of Higher Education and Training.
Dison, L., Y. Salem, and D. Langsford. 2019. “Resourcefulness matters: student patterns for coping with structural and academic challenges.” South African Journal of Higher Education 33(4): 76‒93. DOI: 10.20853/33-4-2831.
Du Toit-Brits, C. 2018. “Towards a transformative and holistic continuing self-directed learning theory.” South African Journal of Higher Education 32(4): 51‒65. DOI.org/10.20853/32-4-2434.
Ellery, K. and J. Baxen. 2015. “‘I always knew I would go to university’: A social realist account of student agency.” South African Journal of Higher Education 29(1): 91–107.
Feryok, A. 2013. “Teaching for learner autonomy.” Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 7(3): 213‒225. DOI: 10.1080/17501229.2013.836203.
Feryok, A. 2014. “Social-cultural theory and task-based language teaching: The role of praxis.” ESOL Quarterly 51(3): 716‒727. DOI: 10.1 002/tesq.390.
Furnborough, C. 2012. “Making the most of others: Autonomous interdependence in adult beginner distance language learners.” Distance Education 33(1): 99‒116. DOI: 10.1080/01587919. 2012.667962.
Furtak, E. M. and M. Kunter. 2012. “Effects of autonomy-supportive teaching on student learning and motivation.” The Journal of Experimental Education 80(3): 284–316. DOI: 10.1080/00220973. 2011.573019.
Hattingh, T., L. Dison, and L. Woollacott. 2019. “Student learning behaviours around assessments.” Australasian Journal of Engineering Education 24(1): 14‒24. DOI: 10.1080/22054952. 2019.1570641.
Hayduk, L., G. Cummings, K. Boadu, H. Pazderka-Robinson, and S. Boulianne. 2006. “Testing! testing! one, two, three – Testing the theory in structural equation models!” Personality and Individual Differences 42(2007): 841–850. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.001.
Hu, L. and P. Bentler. 1999. “Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives.” Structural Equation Modeling 6: 1‒55.
Hutcheson, G. D. 2019. Principal Component Analysis: Sage Research Methods Foundations. Sage: London. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781526421036.
Kahu, E. R. and K. Nelson. 2018. “Student engagement in the educational interface: Understanding the mechanisms of student success.” Higher Education Research and Development 37(1): 58‒71. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2017.1344197.
Knowles, M. S. and Associates. 1984. Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lubbe, D. and A. Nitsche. 2019. “Reducing assimilation and contrast effects on selection interview ratings using behaviorally anchored rating scales.” International Journal of Selection and Assessment 27(1): 43‒53. DOI: 10.1111/ijsa.12230.
Li, L. K. Y. 2012. “A study of the attitude, self-efficacy, effort and academic achievement of CityU students towards research methods and statistics.” Discovery – SS Student E-Journal 1: 154‒183.
Mezirow, J. 1997. “Transformative learning: Theory to practice.” New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 1997(74): 5–12. DOI: 10.1002/ace.7401.
Mezirow, J. 2000. “Learning to think like an adult.” In Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress, ed. J. Mezirow, 3–34. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
McKenna, S. 2004. “The interaction between academic literacies and student identities.” South African Journal of Higher Education 18(3): 269‒280.
Olani, A., E. Harskamp, R. Hoekstra, and G. Van Der Werf. 2010. “The roles of self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in the acquisition of statistical reasoning abilities: A path analysis.” Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice 16(6): 517‒528. DOI: 10.1080/13803611.2011.554742.
Ozsoy, G., A. Memis, and T. Temur. 2009. “Metacognition, study habits and attitudes.” International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education 2(1): 154‒166.
Rogaten, J. and G. B. Moneta. 2015. “Use of creative cognition and positive affect in studying: Evidence of a reciprocal relationship.” Creativity Research Journal 27(2): 225‒231. DOI: 10.1080/ 10400419.2015.1030312.
Sedelmaier, J. J. 2012. “Watty Piper’s 1930 ‘The Little Engine That Could’.” www.printmag.com. (Accessed 3 March 2020).
Song, L. and J. R. Hill. 2007. “A conceptual model for understanding self-directed learning in online environments.” Journal of Interactive Online Learning 6(1): ISSN: 1541-4914.
Subotzky, G. and P. Prinsloo. 2011. “Turning the tide: A socio-critical model and framework for improving student success in open distance learning at the University of South Africa.” Distance Education 32(2): 177‒193.
Sumuer, E. 2018. “Factors related to college students’ self-directed learning with technology.” Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 34(4): 29‒43.
Talsmaa, K., B. Schüz, R. Schwarzer, K. Norris. 2018. “I believe, therefore I achieve (and vice versa): A meta-analytic cross-lagged panel analysis of self-efficacy and academic performance.” Learning and Individual Differences 61(2018): 136‒150. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.11.015.
Torenbeek, M., E. Jansen, and C. Suhre. 2013. “Predicting undergraduates’ academic achievement: The role of the curriculum, time investment and self-regulated learning.” Studies in Higher Education 38(9): 1393‒1406. DOI:10.1080/03075079.2011.640996.
Van Broekhuizen, H., S. van der Berg, and H. Hofmeyr. 2016. “Higher education access and outcomes for the 2008 national Matric cohort.” Stellenbosch Economic Working Papers, 16/16. A working paper of the Department of Economics and the Bureau for Economic Research at the University of Stellenbosch.
Van Griethuijsen, R. A. L. F., M. W. Van Eijck, H. Haste, P. J. Den Brok, N. C. Skinner, N. Mansou, A. S. Gencer, and S. BouJaoude. 2015. “Global patterns in students’ views of science and interest in science.” Research Science Education 2015(45): 581–603. DOI 10.1007/s11165-014-9438-6.
Wang, Y., H. Peng, R. Huang, Y. Hou, and J. Wang. 2008. “Characteristics of distance learners: Research on relationships of learning motivation, learning strategy, self‐efficacy, attribution and learning results.” Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning 23(1): 17‒28.
West, J. and C. Meier. 2019. “Pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy, attitudes and Academic performance with regard to undergraduate research modules.” South African Journal of Higher Education 33(2): 268‒283. DOI: 10.20853/33-2-2615
Yang, H. 2010. “Factor Loadings.” In Encyclopedia of Research Design, ed. N. J. Salkind, 481‒483. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publicatons. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412961288.
Zhao, H. and L. Chen. 2016. “How can self-regulated learning be supported in e-learning 2.0 environment: A comparative study.” Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange 9(2): 1‒20.
Copyright (c) 2021 Jo-Anne Botha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This journal is an open access journal, and the authorsÂ and journal should be properly acknowledged, when works are cited.
Authors, copyright holders, may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, theses, dissertations, conferences and conference papers.Â
A copy of the authors' publishers version may also be hosted on the following websites:
- Non-commercial personal homepage or blog.
- Institutional webpage.
- Authors Institutional Repository.
The following notice should accompany such a posting on the website: This is an electronic version of an article published in SAJHE, Volume XXX, number XXX, pages XXX “XXX", DOI. Authors should also supply a hyperlink to the original paper or indicate where the original paper (http://www.journals.ac.za/index.php/SAJHE) may be found.
Authors publishers version, affiliated with the Stellenbosch University will be automatically deposited in the University Institutional Repository SUNScholar.
Articles as a whole, may not be re-published with another journal.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0