Essentiality of stakeholder management for university survival
AbstractUniversities are struggling to identify and analyse who their stakeholders are, what stake(s) they claim; what threats or opportunities stakeholders present; what responsibility they have towards stakeholders; and to conflate the terms ‘publics’ and ‘stakeholders’. Management of stakeholders entails a symbiotic and epistemological relationship between system-in-focus, stakeholders and the environment. The reductionist approach cannot assist in gaining an understanding of what stakes stakeholders claim. A university is expected to identify its stakeholders and their needs before defining priorities and relational strategies for each stakeholder. As a complex adaptive system operating in complex, ever-changing, diverse and shifting environments, a university needs strong stakeholder management strategies to continually adapt to the needs and expectations of both the university and its stakeholders. Stakeholder salience and identification could enable universities to understand the typology of stakeholder attributes, as well as assist in defining taxonomies relevant to each scenario. In order to enable universities to respond to stakeholders’ competing needs, a ‘strong management’ is suggested in the educational realm, with a fundamental paradigm shift to the notion of 'economic rationalism' in the provision of educational services. This conceptual article seeks to underscore the importance of managing stakeholders for the long-term survival of the university.
AGAR, M. 2007. Rolling complex rocks up social service hills: A personal commentary. Emergence-Mahwah-Lawrence Erlbaum, 9(3), 97-106
AGLE, B.R. 2008. Dialogue: Toward superior stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 18(2):153-190.
ALFRED, R.L. 1985. Organizing for renewal through participative governance. New Directions for Higher Education, 49:57-63.
AMARAL, A. & MAGALHAES, A. 2002. The emergent role of external stakeholders in European higher education governance. In Governing higher education: national perspectives on institutional governance (pp. 1-21). Netherlands: Springer.
ANDERSON, L., BRIGGS, A.R.J. & BURTON, N. 2001. Managing Finance, Resources and Stakeholders in Education. London: Paul Chapman.
ANDERSON, P. 1999. Perspective: Complexity theory and organization science. Organization science, 10 (3):216-232.
BAWA, A.C. 2012. South African higher education: at the center of a cauldron of national imaginations. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 79(3):.669-694.
BENNEWORTH, P. & JONGBLOED, B. W. 2010. Who matters to universities? A stakeholder perspective on humanities, arts and social sciences valorisation. Higher Education, 59(5): 567-588.
BERMAN, S. L., WICKS, A. C., KOTHA, S. & JONES, T. M. 1999. Does stakeholder orientation matter? The relationship between stakeholder management models and firm financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(5): 488-506.
BERTRAND, D. & BUSUGUTSALA, G.G. 1998. Organisation of first-cycle teaching at university: Models and issues. Higher Education Management, 10:109-136.
BOBEICA, A. M. 2011. Stakeholder’s Role in Healthcare Services and New Information Technology. Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management, 5(2.1): 551-560.
BOWEN, W.M., SCHWARTZ, M. & CAMP, L. 2013. The end of academic freedom: The coming obliteration of the core purpose of the university. Information Age Publishing.
BURROWS, J. 1999. Going beyond labels: A framework for profiling institutional stakeholders. Contemporary Education, 70(4):5.
CARROLL, A. & BUCHHOLTZ, A. 2014. Business and society: ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Cengage Learning.
CHENG, P., MILLAR, C.C. & JU CHOI, C. 2006. Organizational change in stakeholder business systems: the role of institutions. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19(3):383-392.
CLARKE, I., FLAHERTY, T.B. & MOTTNER, S. 2001. Student perceptions of educational technology tools. Journal of Marketing Education, 23(3):169-177.
CLARKSON, M. 1994. A risk based model of stakeholder theory: Proceedings of the Second Toronto Conference on Stakeholder Theory. Centre for Corporate Social Performance and Ethics, University of Toronto.
CLARKSON, M. 1995. A Stakeholder Framework for Analyzing and Evaluating Corporate Social Performance. Academy of Management Review, 20 (1): 92-117.
CLEMENT, R.W. 2005. The lessons from stakeholder theory for US business leaders. Business Horizons, 48(3): 255-264.
CONWAY, T., MACKAY, S. & YORKE, D. 1994. Strategic Planning in Higher Education: Who are the Customers? International Journal of Educational Management, 8 (6): 29-36.
DOH, J. P. & QUIGLEY, N.R. 2014. Responsible leadership and stakeholder management: Influence pathways and organizational outcomes. The Academy of Management Perspectives. 28 (3): 255-274.
EHLERS, T. & LAZENBY, K. 2007. Strategic Management. South Africa concept and cases. 2nd edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
EMMECHE, C. 2015. The borderology of friendship in academia. AMITY: The Journal of Friendship Studies, 3(1):.40-59.
ETZKOWITZ, H. & LEYDESDORFF, L. 2000. The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and “Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Research policy, 29(2): 109-123.
FELIX, O. & OGBOR, J. O. 2014. The Quest for Sustainable Development: Strategies for Managing Stakeholder Relationships. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(35): 179-186.
FREEMAN, R. E. 2015. Stakeholder Theory. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, Vol.2, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
FREEMAN, R.E. 1994. The politics of stakeholder theory: Some future directions. Business ethics quarterly, 4(4):.409-421.
FREEMAN, R. E. & MCVEA, J. 2001. A stakeholder approach to strategic management. In M. A. Hitt, R. E. FREEMAN, R.E. & HARRISON, J. S. 2001. The Blackwell handbook of strategic management: 189-207. Oxford: Blackwell.
FREEMAN, R.E., WICKS, A.C. & PAMAR, B. 2004. Stakeholder theory and the corporate objective revisited. Organization science, 15(3):364-369.
GILMOUR Jr., J. 1991. Your Faculty Senate: More Effective than You Think? Academe, 77 (5): 16-18.
GREEN, P. 2014. Service System Interactions At Tertiary Institutions: A South African Perspective. The International Business & Economics Research Journal (Online), 13(1):11.
HACKETT, E. J. 2014. Academic Capitalism. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 39 (5): 635-638.
HAGENBUCH, D.J. 2006. Service learning inputs and outcomes in a personal selling course. Journal of Marketing Education, 28(1):26-34.
HAKANSSON, H. & FORD, D. 2002. How should companies interact in business networks? Journal of business research, 55(2):133-139.
JACKSON, M. C. 2003. Systems thinking: Creative holism for managers. Chichester: Wiley.
JONES, R. 2002. Challenges to the notion of publics in public relations: Implications of the risk society for the discipline. Public Relations Review, 28(1):.49-62.
JONGBLOED, B. 2010. Funding higher education: a view across Europe. Bruxelles: European Centre for Strategic Management of Universities.
JONGBLOED, B., ENDERS, J. & SALEMO, C. 2008. Higher education and its communities: interconnections, interdependencies and a research agenda. Higher Education, 56(3): 303-324.
LAURILLARD, D. 2000. New technologies and the curriculum. In P. Scott (Ed.), Higher education re-formed. London: Falmer Press, 133−153.
LOUW, L. & VENTER, P. 2008. Strategic Management. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa.
LUMBY, J. & FOSKETT, N. 1999. Managing External Relations in Schools and Colleges: International Dimensions. Sage.
MACFARLANE, B. & LOMAS, L. 1999. Stakeholder conceptions of quality in single company management education. Quality Assurance in Education, 7(2):77-84.
MAINARDES, E. W., AlVES, H. & RAPOSO, M. 2010. An exploratory research on the stakeholders of a university. Journal of Management and Strategy, 1(1):76.
MAINARDES, E. W., ALVES, H. & RAPOSO, M. 2012. A model for stakeholder classification and stakeholder relationships. Management Decision, 50(10): 1861-1879.
MAINARDES, E.W., RAPOSO, M. & ALVES, H. 2012. Public university students' expectations: An empirical study based on the stakeholders theory. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 8(35):173-196.
MARTINELLI, A., MEYER, M. & VON TUNZELMANN, N. 2008. Becoming an entrepreneurial university? A case study of knowledge exchange relationships and faculty attitudes in a medium-sized, research-oriented university. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(3): 259-283.
MITCHELL, R. K., AGLE, B. R. & WOOD, D. J. 1997. Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of management review, 22(4): 853-886.
MITCHELL, R. K., BUSENITZ, L. W., BIRD, B., MARIE-GAGLIO, C., MCMULLEN, J. S., MORSE, E. A. & SMITH, J. B. 2007. The central question in entrepreneurial cognition research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(1): 1-27.
MOK, K.H. 1999. Education and the market place in Hong Kong and Mainland China. Higher Education, 37(2):133-158.
NTSHOE, I. M. 2004. Higher education and training policy and practice in South Africa: impacts of global privatisation, quasi-marketisation and new managerialism. International Journal of Educational Development, 24 (2):137-154.
PARENT, M. M. & DEEPHOUSE, D. L. 2007. A case study of stakeholder identification and prioritization by managers. Journal of business ethics, 75(1): 1-23.
PARK, T. 2011. Academic capitalism and its impact on the American professoriate. Journal of the Professoriate, 6(1):84-96.
PAYNE, A., BALLANTYNE, D. & CHRISTOPHER, M. 2005. A stakeholder approach to relationship marketing strategy: The development and use of the “six markets” model. European Journal of Marketing, 39(7/8):855-871.
PEARCE, J.A. & ROBINSON, R.B. 2007. Strategic Management: Strategy Formulation and Implementation. Richard D. Irwin Inc.
PESQUEUX, Y. & DAMAK-AYADI, S. 2005. Stakeholder theory in perspective. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 5(2): 5-21.
POLONSKY, M. 1995. A Stakeholder Theory Approach to Designing Environmental Marketing Strategy. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 10 (3): 29-37.
POLONSKY, M. J., CARLSON, L. & FRY, M. 2003. The Harm Chain: A Public Policy Development and Stakeholder Perspective. Marketing Theory, 3 (3):345–364.
PRESTON, L. & DONALDSON, T. 1999. Stakeholder Management and Organizational Wealth. Academy of Management Review, 24 (4): 619-620.
PROKOPY, L.S., CARLTON, J.S., ARBUCKLE Jr, J.G., HAIGH, T., LEMOS, M.C., MASE, A.S., BABIN, N., DUNN, M., ANDRESEN, J., ANGEL, J. & HART, C. 2015. Extension′s role in disseminating information about climate change to agricultural stakeholders in the United States. Climatic Change, 130(2): 261-272.
PURVIS, R.L., ZAGENCZYK, T.J. & MCCRAY, G.E. 2015. What's in it for me? Using expectancy theory and climate to explain stakeholder participation, its direction and intensity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1):3-14.
RAMLI, N., ZAINOL, Z.A., AZIZ, J.A., ALI, H.M., HASSIM, J., HUSSEIN, W.M.H.W., MARKOM, R., DAHALAN, W.S.A.W. & YAAKOB, N.I. 2013. The Concept of Research University: The Implementation in the Context of Malaysian University System. Asian Social Science, 9(5):307.
RENAULT, C. S. 2006. Academic capitalism and university incentives for faculty entrepreneurship. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(2): 227-239.
SLABÁ, M. 2015. Stakeholder Groups of Public and Private Universities in the Czech Republic–Identification, Categorization and Prioritization. Review of Economic Perspectives, 15(3):305-326.
STEVENS, J.M. & BAGBY, J.W. 2001. Knowledge transfer from universities to business: Returns for all stakeholders. Organization, 8(2):259-268.
STURMBERG, J. P., MARTIN, C. M. & KATERNDAHL, D. A. 2014. Systems and Complexity Thinking in the General Practice Literature: An Integrative, Historical Narrative Review. Annals of Family Medicine, 12(1):66-74.
TAM, F.W.M. 2005. School-community Relations: Reality and Tensions (Article written in Chinese). Journal of Basic Education, 14(2):1-20.
TAYLOR, M. 2013. Shared governance in the modern university. Higher Education Quarterly, 67(1):80-94.
TEELKEN, C. 2012. Compliance or pragmatism: how do academics deal with managerialism in higher education? A comparative study in three countries. Studies in Higher Education, 37(3): 271-290.
TETŘEVOVÁ, L. & SABOLOVÁ, V. 2010. University stakeholder management. In Conference proceedings of 7th WSEAS International Conference Engineering Education (Vol. 10, pp. 141-145).
VAGNONI, E. AND CAVICCHI, C. 2015. An exploratory study of sustainable development at Italian universities. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 16 (2): 217-236.
WICKS, A.C., GILBERT, D.R. & FREEMAN, R.E. 1994. A feminist reinterpretation of the stakeholder concept. Business ethics quarterly, 4(4):475-497.
ZSOLNAI, L. 2006. Extended stakeholder theory. Society and Business Review, 1(1): 37-44.
Copyright (c) 2018 Makabongwe Khanyile
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This journal is an open access journal, and the authors and journal should be properly acknowledged, when works are cited.
Authors, copyright holders, may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, theses, dissertations, conferences and conference papers.
A copy of the authors’ publishers version may also be hosted on the following websites:
- Non-commercial personal homepage or blog.
- Institutional webpage.
- Authors Institutional Repository.
The following notice should accompany such a posting on the website: “This is an electronic version of an article published in SAJHE, Volume XXX, number XXX, pages XXX–XXX”, DOI. Authors should also supply a hyperlink to the original paper or indicate where the original paper (http://www.journals.ac.za/index.php/SAJHE) may be found.
Authors publishers version, affiliated with the Stellenbosch University will be automatically deposited in the University’s’ Institutional Repository SUNScholar.
Articles as a whole, may not be re-published with another journal.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0