UV-B Radiation as a Factor that Deserves Further Research in Bolivian Viticulture: A Review
AbstractBolivian viticulture has acquired an incipient notoriety in the international wine market due to theproduction of high-altitude wines with a high antioxidant potential. Andes agricultural regions presentan advantage for wine production since UV-B radiation reaching the earth’s surface increases withaltitude and varies with latitude, promoting the activation of plant defense mechanisms responsible forthe synthesis of secondary metabolites. UV‐B radiation upregulates the biosynthesis of nitrogen, phenolicand volatile compounds that contribute to wine flavour. It is thought that the incident UV-B radiationin the Bolivian valleys makes it possible to obtain wines with high phenolic and aromatic potential, butthe published results are not entirely conclusive. This manuscript addressed the geological and climaticfeatures that affect Bolivian viticulture, and we reviewed the field studies carried out regarding the effectsof altitude and UV-B radiation on flavour components of grapes and wines from Bolivian viticulturalvalleys. A high antioxidant capacity and trans-resveratrol content is found in grapes and wines from highaltitude Bolivian vineyards, including if they are compared to those samples from different wine countries.However, high UV-B radiation can result in bunch sunburn affecting some physico-chemical parameters ofthe produced wines. Scarce number of studies have been developed in this field despite this region presenta valuable potential for research in order to quantify the effects of biologically damaging radiation on thesynthesis of flavour components in grapes and some of them were not well scientifically controlled.
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