Phytochemical Characterization and Antiplatelet Activity of Mexican Red Wines and Their By-products

  • Ó.A. Muñoz-Bernal Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas
  • L.A. de la Rosa Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas
  • J. Rodrigo-García Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México
  • N.R. Martínez-Ruiz Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas
  • S. Sáyago-Ayerdi Tecnológico Nacional de México/Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic
  • L. Rodriguez Thrombosis Research Center, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohaematology, Faculty of Health Sciences
  • E. Fuentes Thrombosis Research Center, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohaematology, Faculty of Health Sciences
  • E. Alvarez-Parrilla Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez


Red wines and their grape pomaces are important sources of phenolic compounds. Inhibition of platelet
aggregation is one of the mechanisms proposed for cardioprotective effect of phenolic compounds from
wine and grape pomace; however, phenolic content is affected by region, variety and winemaking process.
In the present study, antiplatelet effect of red wines and grape pomaces was related to its phenolic content
(determined by spectrophotometric techniques) and profile (determined using HPLC-MS/MS). in vitro
Anti-platelet aggregation was determined using human platelets. Results showed that Zinfandel wine and
Cabernet Sauvignon grape pomace presented the highest phenolic content. Phenolic profiles presented
differences in the presence of flavonoids and oligomeric tannins. Results from platelet aggregation
showed that Merlot and Petit Verdot wines and Petit Verdot grape pomace sample presented the highest
antiaggregant effect. These results indicate that antiplatelet effect could be related to phenolic profile than
phenolic content in wines and grape pomaces. Cardioprotective effect of red wines and grape pomace
could be related to specific compounds such as monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols.

Author Biographies

L.A. de la Rosa, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas

Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas

J. Rodrigo-García, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México

N.R. Martínez-Ruiz, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas

Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas

S. Sáyago-Ayerdi, Tecnológico Nacional de México/Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic

Tecnológico Nacional de México/Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic, Col. Lagos del Country, Tepic, Nayarit

L. Rodriguez, Thrombosis Research Center, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohaematology, Faculty of Health Sciences

Thrombosis Research Center, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohaematology, Faculty of Health Sciences

E. Fuentes, Thrombosis Research Center, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohaematology, Faculty of Health Sciences

Thrombosis Research Center, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohaematology, Faculty of Health Sciences

E. Alvarez-Parrilla, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas



Belmiro, T.M.C., Pereira, C.F. & Paim, A.P.S., 2017. Red wines from South America: Content of phenolic compounds and chemometric distinction by origin. Microchem. J. 133, 114–120.

Beres, C., Costa, G.N.S., Cabezudo, I., da Silva-James, N.K.., Teles, A.S.C., Cruz, A.P.G., Mellinger-Silva, C., Tonon, R.V., Cabral, L.M.C. & Freitas, S.P., 2017. Towards integral utilization of grape pomace from winemaking process: A review. Waste Manag. 68, 581–594.

Bonechi, C., Lamponi, S., Donati, A., Tamasi, G., Consumi, M., Leone, G., Rossi, C. & Magnani, A., 2017. Effect of resveratrol on platelet aggregation by fibrinogen protection. Biophys. Chem. 222, 41–48.

Born, G.V.R. & Cross, M.J., 1963. The Aggregation Of Blood Platelets. J. Physiol. 178–195.

Broos, K., De Meyer, S.F., Feys, H.B., Vanhoorelbeke, K. & Deckmyn, H., 2012. Blood platelet biochemistry. Thromb. Res. 129(3), 245–249.

Burin, V.M., Freitas Costa, L.L., Rosier, J.P. & Bordignon-Luiz, M.T., 2011. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from two different clones, characterization and evolution during bottle ageing. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 44(9), 1931–1938.

Casassa, L.F. & Harbertson, J.F., 2014. Extraction, Evolution, and Sensory Impact of Phenolic Compounds During Red Wine Maceration. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 83–109.

Cattaneo, M., 2019. The Platelet P2 Receptors. In: Michelson, A.D. (ed). Platelets. (4th ed ed.). Elsevier Inc., London, UK. 261–281.

Clemetson, K.J. & Clemetson, J.M., 2019. Platelet Receptors. In: Michelson, A.D. (ed). Platelets. (4th ed.). Elsevier Inc., London, UK. 169–192.

Coletta, A., Berto, S., Crupi, P., Cravero, M.C., Tamborra, P., Antonacci, D., Daniele, P.G. & Prenesti, E., 2014. Effect of viticulture practices on concentration of polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity of Southern Italy red wines. Food Chem. 152, 467–474.

Denny, C., Lazarini, J.G., Franchin, M., Melo, P.S., Pereira, G.E., Massarioli, A.P., Moreno, I.A.M., Paschoal, J.A.R. & Alencar, S.M., 2014. Bioprospection of Petit Verdot grape pomace as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. J. Funct. Foods. 8(1), 292–300.

Domínguez-Rodríguez, G., Marina, M.L. & Plaza, M., 2017. Strategies for the extraction and analysis of non-extractable polyphenols from plants. J. Chromatogr. A. 1514, 1–15.

Figueiredo-González, M., Martínez-Carballo, E., Cancho-Grande, B., Santiago, J.L., Martínez, M.C. & Simal-Gándara, J., 2012. Pattern recognition of three Vitis vinifera L. red grapes varieties based on anthocyanin and flavonol profiles, with correlations between their biosynthesis pathways. Food Chem. 130(1), 9–19.

Font, I., Gudiño, P. & Sánchez, A., 2010. La industria vinícola mexicana y las políticas agroindustriales: panorama general. Redpol. 2, 1-30.

Fuentes, M., Sepúlveda, C., Alarcón, M., Palomo, I. & Fuentes, E., 2018. Buddleja globosa (matico) prevents collagen-induced platelet activation by decreasing phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation signaling. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 8(1), 66–71.

Giuliana, M., Ciancarelli, T., Di Massimo, C., De Amicis, D., Ciancarelli, I. & Carolei, A., 2011. Moderate consumption of red wine and human platelet responsiveness. Thromb. Res. 128(2), 124–129.

Gremmel, T., Xhelili, E., Steiner, S., Koppensteiner, R., Kopp, C.W. & Panzer, S., 2014. Response to antiplatelet therapy and platelet reactivity to thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 in cardiovascular interventions: Differences between peripheral and coronary angioplasty. Atherosclerosis. 232(1), 119–124.

Gresele, P., Pignatelli, P., Guglielmini, G., Carnevale, R., Mezzasoma, A.M., Ghiselli, a., Momi, S. & Violi, F., 2008. Resveratrol, at Concentrations Attainable with Moderate Wine Consumption, Stimulates Human Platelet Nitric Oxide Production. J. Nutr. 138(9), 1602–1608.

Ivanova-Petropulos, V., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I., Boros, B., Stefova, M., Stafilov, T., Vojnoski, B., Dörnyei, Á. & Kilár, F., 2015. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines. J. Food Compos. Anal. 41, 1–14.

Jiang, B. & Zhang, Z.W.W., 2012. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China. Molecules. 17(8), 8804–8821.

Jin, Z.M., He, J.J., Bi, H.Q., Cui, X.Y. & Duan, C.Q., 2009. Phenolic compound profiles in berry skins from nine red wine grape cultivars in Northwest China. Molecules. 14(12), 4922–4935.

Jordão, A.M. & Ricardo-da-Silva, J.M., 2018. Evolution of Proanthocyanidins During Grape Maturation, Winemaking, and Aging Process of Red Wines. In: Morata, A. (ed). Red Wine Technology (1st ed.). Academic Press, London, UK. 177–193.

de Lange, D.W., van Golde, P.H., Scholman, W.L.G., Kraaijenhagen, R.J., Akkerman, J.W.N. & van de Wiel, A., 2003. Red wine and red wine polyphenolic compounds but not alcohol inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 14(6), 361–366.

de Lange, D.W., Verhoef, S., Gorter, G., Kraaijenhagen, R.J., van de Wiel, A. & Akkerman, J.W.N., 2007. Polyphenolic grape extract inhibits platelet activation through PECAM-1: An explanation for the French paradox. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 31(8), 1308–1314.

Lee, J., Durst, R.W. & Wrolstad, R.E., 2005. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: Collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 88(5), 1269–1278.

Lingua, M.S., Fabani, M.P., Wunderlin, D.A. & Baroni, M.V., 2016. In vivo antioxidant activity of grape, pomace and wine from three red varieties grown in Argentina: Its relationship to phenolic profile. J. Funct. Foods. 20, 332–345.

Lukić, I., Radeka, S., Budić-Leto, I., Bubola, M. & Vrhovsek, U., 2019. Targeted UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS profiling of phenolic compounds for differentiation of monovarietal wines and corroboration of particular varietal typicity concepts. Food Chem. 300, 1-11.

Mazza, G., Fukumoto, L., Delaquis, P., Girard, B. & Ewert, B., 1999. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and color of Cabernet Franc, Merlot, and Pinot Noir wines from British Columbia. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47(10), 4009–4017.

Moldovan, B., David, L., Chisbora, C. & Cimpoiu, C., 2012. Degradation kinetics of anthocyanins from european cranberrybush (viburnum opulus l.) fruit extracts. Effects of temperature, pH and storage solvent. Molecules. 17(10), 11655–11666.

Muñoz-Bernal, Ó.A., Coria-Oliveros, A.J., Vazquez-Flores, A.A., de la Rosa, L.A., Núñez-Gastelum, J.A., Rodrigo-García, J., Ayala-Zavala, J.F. & Alvarez-Parrilla, E., 2020. Evolution of Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Profile during Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration and Subsequent Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 41(1), 72–82.

Murphy, K.J., Chronopoulos, A.K., Singh, I., Francis, M.A., Moriarty, H., Pike, M.J., Turner, A.H., Mann, N.J. & Sinclair, A.J., 2003. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77(6), 1466–1473.

Oliveira, D.A., Salvador, A.A., Smânia, A.J., Smânia, E.F.A., Maraschin, M. & Ferreira, S.R.S., 2013. Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids J. Biotechnol. 164(3), 423–432.

Ortega-Regules, A., Romero-Cascales, I., López-Roca, J.M., Ros-García, J.M. & Gómez-Plaza, E., 2006. Anthocyanin fingerprint of grapes: environmental and genetic variations. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86(10), 1460–1467.

Pace-Asciak, C.R., Hahn, S., Diamandis, E.P., Soleas, G. & Goldberg, D.M., 1995. The red wine phenolics trans-resveratrol and quercetin block human platelet aggregation and eicosanoid synthesis: Implications for protection against coronary heart disease. Clin. Chim. Acta 235(2), 207–219.

Panceri, C.P., De Gois, J.S., Borges, D.L.G. & Bordignon-Luiz, M.T., 2015. Effect of grape dehydration under controlled conditions on chemical composition and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 63(1), 228–235.

Pintać, D., Majkić, T., Torović, L., Orčić, D., Beara, I., Simin, N., Mimica-Dukić, N. & Lesjak, M., 2018. Solvent selection for efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from grape pomace. Ind. Crops Prod. 111, 379–390.

Rabai, M., Toth, A., Mark, L., Marton, Zs., Juricskay, I., Toth, K. & Czopf, L., 2010. In vitro hemorheological effects of red wine and alcohol-free red wine extract. Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 44(3), 227–236.

Rockenbach, I.I., Gonzaga, L.V., Rizelio, V.M., Gonçalves, A.E.S.S., Genovese, M.I. & Fett, R., 2011. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of seed and skin extracts of red grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) pomace from Brazilian winemaking. Food Res. Int. 44(4), 897–901.

Rull, G., Mohd-Zain, Z.N., Shiel, J., Lundberg, M.H. Collier, D.J., Johnston, A., Warner, T.D. & Corder, R., 2015. Effects of high flavanol dark chocolate on cardiovascular function and platelet aggregation. Vascul. Pharmacol. 71, 70–78.

Russo, P., Tedesco, I., Russo, M., Russo, G.L., Venezia, A. & Cicala, C., 2001. Effects of de-alcoholated red wine and its phenolic fractions on platelet aggregation Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 11(1), 25–29.

Sepúlveda, C., Hernández, B., Burgos, C.F., Fuentes, E., Palomo, I. & Alarcon, M., 2019. The cAMP/PKA Pathway Inhibits Beta-amyloid Peptide Release from Human Platelets. Neuroscience. 397, 159–171.

Stránský, M., 2014. Moderate alcohol consumption - Blessing or curse? Kontakt. 16(3), 155-160.

Teixeira, A., Baenas, N., Dominguez-Perles, R., Barros, A., Rosa, E., Moreno, D.A. & Garcia-Viguera, C., 2014. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: A review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15(9), 15638–15678.

Tournour, H.H., Segundo, M.A., Magalhães, L.M., Barreiros, L., Queiroz, J. & Cunha, L.M., 2015. Valorization of grape pomace: Extraction of bioactive phenolics with antioxidant properties. Ind. Crops Prod. 74, 397–406.

Versari, A., du Toit, W. & Parpinello, G.P., 2013. Oenological tannins: a review. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 19(1), 1–10.

Wang, S., Amigo-Benavent, M., Mateos, R., Bravo, L. & Sarriá, B., 2017. Effects of in vitro digestion and storage on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of a red grape pomace. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 68(2), 188–200.

Wang, Z., Huang, Y., Zou, J., Cao, K., Xu, Y. & Wu, J.M., 2002. Effect of red wine and wine polyphenol resveratrol on platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro. Int. J. Mol. Med. 9, 77–79.