Effect of Kaolin/Defoliation Combined with Dry Ice on Lambrusco Red Wine Production to Constrain the Effects of Climate Change
AbstractSince viticulture is affected considerably by climate change, it is imperative to encourage research on newstrategies in order to constrain these critical effects on the composition of berries and the quality of wines.A multi-strategy approach composed of (i) kaolin application on foliage, (ii) late tree defoliation and (iii)cryomaceration of grapes with dry ice was evaluated in the production of Lambrusco Salamino wines.Physical, chemical and sensory analyses were carried out on the sample set, including the control wines.In general, cryomaceration with dry ice proved to be a winning choice to lower alcoholic strength (roughly5%). In addition, the wines showed an increase in anthocyanin content by approximately 17%, while thecontent of catechins, flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids decreased. Consistent with the increase in theanthocyanin content, an increase in colour indices and sensory colour intensity scores was observed. As forthe aromatic profile, 2-phenylethanol showed an increase of approximately 18% in the treated wines while,in parallel, a lower content of C6 alcohols and volatile fatty acids was observed. The multiple adaptationstrategies put in place in the present study show an alternative way to mitigate the severe effects of climatechange on wine production, and to face changing consumer demands.
Baumes, R., 1998. Les constituants volatils du stade fermentaire, In: Flanzy, C. (ed) Oenologie. fondaments scientifiques et technologiques. Lavoisier, Paris, pp. 193 - 201.
Bernardo, S., Dinis. L.T., Machado, N. & Moutinho-Pereira, J., 2018. Grapevine abiotic stress assessment and search for sustainable adaptation strategies in Mediterranean-like climates. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 38(6), 66-86.
Cai, J., Zhu, B.Q., Wang, Y.H., Lu, L., Lan, Y.B., Reeves, M.J. & Duan, C.Q., 2014. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters. Food Chem. 154, 217-229.
Carillo, M., Formato, A., Fabiani, A., Scaglione, G. & Pucillo, G.P., 2011. An inertizing and cooling process for grapes cryomaceration. Electron. J. Biotechnol. 14(6), 1-8.
CIE, 1976. International Commission on illumination. Colourimetry: Official recommendation of the international commission on illumination. Paris, France: Bureau Central de la CIE Publication CIE No. (E-1.31).
Conde, A., Pimentel, D., Neves, A., Dinis, L.T., Bernardo, S., Correia, C.M. & Moutinho-Pereira, J., 2016. Kaolin foliar application has a stimulatory effect on phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways in grape berries. Front. Plant. Sci. 7, 1150 -1164.
Coniberti, A., Ferrari, V., Dellacassa, E., Boido. E., Carrau, F., Gepp, V. & Disegna, E., 2013. Kaolin over sun-exposed fruit affects berry temperature. must composition and wine sensory attributes of Sauvignon blanc. Eur. J. Agron. 50, 75-81.
Couasnon, M., 1999. Une nouvelle technique, la maceration prefermentaire a froid. Extraction a la neige carbonique. 2e. partie : la technologie de la neige carbonique. Revue des oenologues et des techniques vitivinicoles et oenologiques: magazine trimestriel d’information professionnelle 93, 28-32.
De Orduna, R., 2010. Climate change associated effects on grape and wine quality and production. Food Res. Int. 43(7), 1844-1855.
EC (European Commission), 2009. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 606/2009 of 10 July 2009 laying down certain detailed rules for implementing Council Regulation (EC) No 479/2008 as regards the categories of grapevine products, oenological practices and the applicable restrictions. OJEU. L 193, N° 52 (2009).
EU Official Gazette. L 272, Luxembourg, Oct 3, 1990.
Franco, M., Peinado, R.A., Medina, M., Moreno, J., 2004. Off-vine grape drying effect on volatile compounds and aromatic series in must from Pedro Ximénez grape variety. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52(12), 3905-3910.
Friedel. M., Stoll. M., Patz. C.D., Will. F. & Dietrich. H., 2015. Impact of light exposure on fruit composition of white 'Riesling' grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). Vitis 54(3), 107-116.
Glories, I., 1984. La Couleur des Vins Rouges1984). 2° Partie. Mesure Origine et Interpretation. Connaiss. Vigne Vin 18 (4), 253-271.
Gregan, S.M., Wargent, J.J., Liu., L., Shinkle, J., Hofmann, R., Winefield, C. & Jordan, B., 2012. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation and canopy manipulation on the biochemical composition of Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 18(2), 227-238.
Gump, B.H., Zoecklein, B.W., Fugelsang, K.C. & Whiton, R.S., 2002. Comparison of analytical methods for prediction of pre-fermentation nutritional status of grape juice. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 53(4), 325-329.
Heredia, F.J., Escudero-Gilete, M.L., Hernanz, D., Gordillo, B., Meléndez-Martínez, A.J., Vicario, I.M. & González-Miret, M.L., 2010. Influence of the refrigeration technique on the colour and phenolic composition of syrah red wines obtained by pre-fermentative cold maceration. Food Chem. 118, 377-383.
Heredia, F. J., Francia-Aricha, E. M., Rivas-Gonzalo, J. C., Vicario I. M., & Santos Buelga C. 1998. Chromatic characterization of anthocyanins from red grapes. - I. pH effect. Food Chem. 63(4), 491- 498.
Hortega-Heras, M., Pérez-Magariño, S. & González-Sanjosé, M.L. 2012. Comparative study of the use of maceration enzymes and cold pre-fermentative maceration on phenolic and anthocyanic composition and colour of a Mencía red wine. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 48, 1-8.
Hunt, R.W.G. & Pointer, M.R., 2011. Measuring Colour, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons Ltd (ed.), United States (US). ISBN 13:9781119975373.
ISO 8586-1., 1993. Sensory analysis – general guidance for the selection. training and monitoring of assessors. Part 1: Selected assessors.
Lereboullet, A.L., Bardsley, D. & Beltrando, G., 2013. Assessing vulnerability and framing adaptive options of two Mediterranean wine growing regions facing climate change: Roussillon (France) and McLaren Vale (Australia). EchoGéo 23, 1-16.
Lukić, I., Radeka, S., Grozaj, N., Staver, M. & Peršurić, D., 2016. Changes in physico-chemical and volatile aroma compound composition of Gewürztraminer wine as a result of late and ice harvest. Food Chem. 196, 1048-1057.
Meilgaard, M., Civille, G.V. & Carr, B.T., 1999. Descriptive analysis in sensory evaluation techniques, 3rd ed., CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton. U.S.A.
Mencarelli. F. & Bellincontro. A., 2018. Recent advances in postharvest technology of the wine grape to improve the wine aroma. J. Sci. Food Agric. 100(14), 5046-5055.
Mihnea, M., González-SanJose, M.L., Ortega-Heras, M. & Perez-Magarino, S., 2015. A comparative study of the volatile content of Mencía wines obtained using different pre-fermentative maceration techniques. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 64, 32-41.
Montevecchi, G., Masino, F., Vasile Simone, G., Cerretti, E. & Antonelli, A., 2015. Aromatic profile of white sweet semi-sparkling wine from Malvasia di Candia aromatica grapes. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 36(2). 267-276.
Montevecchi, G., Vasile Simone, G., Masino, F., Bignami, C. & Antonelli, A., 2012. Physical and chemical characterization of Pescabivona. A Sicilian white flesh peach cultivar [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Food Res. Int. 45(1), 123-131.
Mozell, M.R. & Thach, L., 2014. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions. Wine Econ. Policy 3(2), 81-89.
OIV, 2019. Analytical methods recognised by the General Assembly of the International Vine and Wine Office, (OIV). Compendium of International Methods of Wine and Must Analysis. ANNEX A –Methods of Analysis of Wines and Musts, ISBN Volume I: 978-2-85038-004-4.
Parenti, A., Spugnoli, P., Calamai,·L., Ferrari, S. & Gori, C., 2004. Effects of cold maceration on red wine quality from Tuscan Sangiovese grape. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 218, 360-366.
Parker, A., De Cortázar-Atauri, I.G., Chuine, I., Barbeau, G., Bois, B., Boursiquot, J.M. & Guimberteau, G., 2013. Classification of varieties for their timing of flowering and veraison using a modelling approach: A case study for the grapevine species Vitis vinifera L. Agric. For. Meteorol. 180, 249-264.
Peinadoa R. A., Morenoa, J., Buenoa, J. E., Morenoa, J. A., Mauricio J. C., 2004. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in two young white wines subjected to pre-fermentative cryomaceration. Food Chem. 84, 585–590.
Pérez-Lamela, C., García-Falcón, M.S., Simal-Gándara, J. & Orriols-Fernández, I., 2007. Influence of grape variety. vine system and enological treatments on the colour stability of young red wines. Food Chem. 101(2), 601-606.
Petrozziello, M., Guaita M., Motta, S., Panero, L. & Bosso, A., 2011. Analytical and Sensory Characterization of the Aroma of “Langhe D.O.C. Nebbiolo” Wines: Influence of the Prefermentative Cold Maceration with Dry Ice. J. Food Sci. 76(4), C525-C534.
Pons, A., Allamy, L., Schüttler, A., Rauhut, D., Thibon, C. & Darriet, P., 2017. What is the expected impact of climate change on wine aroma compounds and their precursors in grape? OENO One 51(2), 141-146.
Rapp, A. & Mandery, H., 1986. Wine aroma. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 42, 873-884.
Ribéreau-Gayon P., 2015. Trattato di enologia II: Chimica del vino. Stabilizzazione Trattamenti. A cura di: Ribéreau-Gayon, Glories, Maujean, Dubourdieu; Edagricole, Milano, 2015.
Ricci, A., Teslic, N., Petropolus, V.I., Parpinello, G.P. & Versari, A., 2019. Fast Analysis of Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity in Wines and Oenological Tannins Using a Flow Injection System with Tandem Diode Array and Electrochemical Detections. Food Anal. Methods 12, 347-354.
Sevcech, J., Vicenova, L., Furkidova, K. & Malik, F., 2015. Influence of Thermal Treatment on Polyphenol Extraction of Wine Czech. Food. Sci. 33(1), 91-96.
Singleton, V.L. & Rossi, J.A., 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144-158.
Soto-Vazquez E., Rio Segade, S. & Orriols Fernandez I., 2010. Effect of the winemaking technique on phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics in young red wines. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 231(5), 789-802.
Tarara, J.M., Lee, J., Spayd, S.E. & Scagel, C.F., 2008. Berry temperature and solar radiation alter acylation. proportion. and concentration of anthocyanin in Merlot grapes. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 59(3), 235-247.
Teixeira, A., Eiras-Dias, J., Castellarin, S. & Gerós, H., 2013. Berry phenolics of grapevine under challenging environments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14(9). 18711-18739.
Van Leeuwen, C. & Seguin, G., 2006. The concept of terroir in viticulture. J. Wine Res. 17(1), 1-10.
Vasile Simone, G., Montevecchi, G., Masino, F., Imazio, S.A., Bignami, C. & Antonelli A., 2018. Aromatic Characterisation of Malvasia Odorosissima Grapevines and Comparison with Malvasia di Candia Aromatica. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 39(1), 77-88.
Vasile Simone, G., Montevecchi, G., Masino, F., Matrella, V., Imazio, S.A., Antonelli, A. & Bignami, C., 2013. Ampelographic and chemical characterization of Reggio Emilia and Modena (northern Italy) grapes for two traditional seasonings: ‘saba’ and ‘agresto’. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93, 3502-3511.
Copyright (c) 2021 South African Society for Enology and Viticulture
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
A copyright form will be e-mailed to the corresponding author when the manuscript has been accepted for publication.
In principle, the Author agrees to the following when he/she signes the copyright agreement:
I hereby assign to the SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR ENOLOGY AND VITICULTURE (SASEV) the copyright of the text, tables, figures, supplementary material, illustrations and other information (the Material) submitted with the manuscript to be published in SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ENOLOGY AND VITICULTURE (SAJEV) (the "Article"). The copyright becomes effective from the date the Article has been accepted for publication in SAJEV.
This is an open access journal, and the authors and journal should be properly acknowledged, when works are cited.
Author's may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, theses, dissertations, conferences and conference papers.
A copy of the authors' publishers version may also be hosted on the following websites:
- Non-commercial personal webpage or blog.
- Institutional webpage.
- Authors Institutional Repository.
The following notice should accompany such a posting on the website: This is an electronic version of an article published in SAJEV, Volume XXX, number XXX, pages XXX - XXX, DOI. Authors should also supply a hyperlink to the original paper or indicate where the original paper (www.journals.ac.za/index.php/sajev/) may be found.
Authors publishers version, affiliated with the Stellenbosch University will be automatically deposited in the University's Institutional Repository SUNScholar.
Articles as a whole, may not be re-published with another journal.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0