Metal Concentrations in Grape Spirits

  • T. N. van Wyk Agricultural Research Council
  • F. van Jaarsveld
  • O. J. Caleb

Abstract

Metals are a necessity for human health as they play significant roles in biological systems. However,contamination of food and beverages by heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), cadmium(Cd), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) is a major public health problem in developingcountries. In this study we evaluated the levels of Li, Be, B, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr,Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg and Pb in grape spirits, including pot still spirit, neutral wine spirit and commercialbrandies. Interesting variations in the levels of metals was observed. Factors such as origin and type ofspirits influenced levels of metals in spirits. These differences in some metal levels such as copper canbe used to determine possible adulteration and in authenticity assessments of brandies. Surprisingly thecommercial brandies had higher metal concentrations when compared to pot still spirit and neutral winespirit. Unmatured pot still spirit had the highest copper levels. Our study shows that generally the metallevels in most of the commercial brandies were within permissible limits.

Author Biographies

T. N. van Wyk, Agricultural Research Council
Postharvest and Agroprocessing Technologies, Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch
F. van Jaarsveld
Postharvest and Agroprocessing Technologies, Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch
O. J. Caleb
Postharvest and Agroprocessing Technologies, Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch

References

Aylott, R. I., MacKenzie, W. M. (2010). Analytical strategies to confirm the generic authenticity of Scotch whisky. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 116, 215-229.

Adam, T., Duthie, E., Feldmann, J. (2002). Investigations into the use of copper and other metals as indicators for the authenticity of Scotch whiskies. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 108, 459-464.

AHPA: American Herbal Products Association, (2009). Heavy Metals: Analysis and Limits in Herbal Dietary Supplements. AHPA: Silver Spring, MD.

Álvarez, M., Moreno, I. M., Jos, A., Cameán, A. M., and González, A. G. (2007). Differentiation of two Andalusian DO ‘fino’ wines according to their metal content from ICP-OES by using supervised pattern recognition methods. Microchemistry Journal, 8, 72–76.

Amidži Klari, D., Klari, I., Veli, D., Vedrina Dragojevi, I. (2011). Evaluation of mineral and heavy metal contents in Croatian blackberry wines. Czech Journal of Food Science, 29, 260–267.

Azenha, M. A. G. O., Vasconcelos, T. S. (2000). Assessment of the Pb and Cu in vitro availability in wines by means of speciation procedures. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 38, 899-912.

Esteki, M., Simal-Gandara, J., Shahsavari, Z., Zandbaaf, S., Dashtaki, E., van Vander Heyden, Y. (2018). A review on the application of chromatographic methods, coupled to chemometrics, for food authentication (Chromatography-chemometrics in food authentication). Food Control, 93, 165-182.

Barbeira, P. J. S., Stradiotto, N. R. (1997). Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of zinc, lead and copper in rum by anodic stripping voltammetry. Talanta, 44, 185–188.

Cabanis, J. C., Cabanis, M. T., Cheynier, V., Teissedre, P. T. (2003). Tablas de composición. In: Flanzy C, editor. Enología: Fundamentos Científicos y Tecnológicos, 2ª edn. Madrid: AMV ediciones, Mundi-Prensa.

Camean, A. M., Moreno, I., Lopez-Artiguez, M., Repetto, M., Gonzalez, A. G. (2001). Differentiation of Spanish brandies according to their metal contents. Talanta, 54, 53–59.

Codex Alimentarius. General Requirements for Natural Flavourings (CAC/GL 29.1987). Available online: www.codexalimentarius.net (accessed on 12 November 2018).

CODEX. (2011) Working Document for Information and Use in Discussions Related to Contaminants and Toxins in the GSCTFF; Codex Alimentarius Commission: Rome, Italy (pp. 13–15).

Das, K. K., Das, S. N., Dhundasi, S. A. (2008). Nickel, its adverse health effects & oxidative stress. Indian Journal of Medicinal Research, 128, 412-425.

Hamada, Y. Z. (2016). Metal Ions Role in Biological Systems. Electronic Journal of Biology, S2, 1-1.

Han, J., Shang, Q., Du, Y. (2009). Review: effect of environmental cadmium pollution on human health. Health, 1, 159-166.

Esteki, M., Simal-Gandara, J., Shahsavari, Z., Zandbaaf, S., Dashtaki, E., van Vander Heyden, Y. (2018). A review on the application of chromatographic methods, coupled to chemometrics, for food authentication (Chromatography-chemometrics in food authentication). Food Control, 93, 165-182.

González-Arjona, D., González-Gallero, V., Pablos, F., González, A. G. (1999). Authentication and differentiation of Irish whiskys by higher-alcohol congener analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta, 381, 257-264.

Ibanez, J., Carreón, A., Barcena-Soto, M., Casillas, N. (2008). Metals in alcoholic beverages: A review of sources, effects, concentrations, removal, speciation, and analysis. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 21. 672-683.

Iwegbue, C. M. A. (2010) Composition and daily intakes of some trace metals from canned beers in Nigeria. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 116, 312–315.

Iwegbue, C.M.A, Overah, L.C., Bassey, F.I., Martincigh, B.S., 2014. Trace metal concentrations in distilled alcoholic beverages and liquors in Nigeria. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 120, 521-528.

Gerbig, S., Neese, S., Penner, A., Spengler, B., Schulz, S. (2017). Real-Time Food Authentication 1084 Using a Miniature Mass Spectrometer. Analytical Chemistry, 89, 10717–10725.

Gremaud, G., Quaile, S., Piantini, U., Pfammatter, E., Corvi, C. (2004). Characterization of Swiss vineyards using isotopic data in combination with trace elements and classical parameters. European Food Research and Technology, 219, 97-104.

Kment, P., Mihaljevi, M., Ettler, V., Šebek, O., Strnad, L., and Rohlová, L. (2005). Differentiation of Czech wines using multielement composition – A comparison with vineyard soil. Food Chemistry, 91, 157–165.

Food Informatics (2005). Department of Nutrition, Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research.

Frías, S., Pérez Trujillo, J. P., Peña, E. M., Conde, J. E. (2001). Classification and differentiation of bottled sweet wines of Canary Islands (Spain) by their metallic content. European Food Research and Technology, 213, 145–149.

Heller, M., Vitali, L., Oliveira, M. A. L., Costa, A. C. O., Micke, G. A. (2011). A rapid sample screening method for authenticity control of whisky using capillary electrophoresis with online preconcentration. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 59, 6882-6888.

Liao, Z., Chen, Y., Ma, J., Md. Islam, S, Weng L., Li, Y. (2019). The effects of long-term fertilization on Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation in greenhouse soils from the Shouguang District, Shandong Province, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16 (15) DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16152805.

MacKenzie, W. M., Aylott, R. I., (2004). Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity. Part II: Mobile brand authentication. Analyst, 129, 607-612.

Maret, W. (2016). The Metals in the Biological Periodic System of the Elements: Concepts and Conjectures. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, 66.

Miranda, K., Dionísio, A. G. G., Pereira-Filho, E. R. (2010). Copper determination in sugar cane spirits by fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry using internal standardization. Microchemical Journal, 96, 99-101.

Navarro, M., Velasco, C., Jodral, A., Terrés, C., Olalla, M., Lopez H., Lopez M. C. (2007). Copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium contents in alcoholic beverages and by products from Spain: nutritional supply. Food Additives and Contaminants, 24, 685-694.

Nascimento, R. F., Bezerra, C. W. B., Furuya, S. M. B., Schultz, M. S., Polastro, L. R., Lima Neto, B. S., Franco, D. W. (1999). Mineral profile of Brazilian cachaças and other international spirits, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 12, 17–25.

Okareh, O. T., Oyelakin, T. M., Ariyo, O. (2018). Phytochemical properties and heavy metal contents of commonly consumed alcoholic beverages flavoured with herbal extract in Nigeria. Beverages, 4, 60.

Oladeji, S. O., Saeed, M. D. (2015) Assessment of cobalt levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable samples grown along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 9, 765-772.

Onıonwa, P. C., Adeyemo, A. O., Idowu, O. E., Ogabıela, E. E. (2001). Copper and zinc contents of Nigerian foods and estimates of the adult dietary intakes. Food Chemistry, 72, 89–95.

Olivieri, C., Agay, B., Badry, P., Bellenque-Sanzzedde, L., Boudou, F., Capello, F., Chambon, H., Sabate, B. (2003). Preparación y acondicionamiento de los vinos. In: Flanzy C, editor. Enología: Fundamentos Científicos y Tecnológicos, 2ª edn. Madrid: AMV ediciones, Mundi-Prensa.

Puech, J. L., Leante, R., Moseale, J. R., Mourgeues, J. (2003). Barrica y envejecimiento de los aguardientes. In: Flanzy C, editor. Enología: Fundamentos Científicos y Tecnológicos, 2ª edn. Madrid: AMV ediciones, Mundi-Prensa.

Pohl, P. (2007). What do metals tell us about wine? Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 26, 941–949.

Rai, P.K., Lee, S.S., Zhang, M., Tsang Y.F., Kim K.-H. (2019). Heavy metals in food crops: Health risks, fate, mechanisms, and management. Environment International 125, 365-385.

Salako, S.G., Adekoyeni, O.O., Adegbite, A.A., Hammed, T.B. (2016). Determination of metals content of alcohol and non-alcoholic canned drinks consumed at Idiroko Border Town Ogun State Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology 12, 1–8.

Salvo, F., La Pera, L., Di Bella, G., Nicotina, M., Dugo, G. (2003). Influence of different mineral and organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 1090-1094.

Sauvage, L., Frank, D., Stearne, J., Millikan, M. B. (2002). Trace metal studies of selected white wines: An alternative approach. Analytica Chimica Acta, 458, 223–230.

Silva, A. L. O., Paulo, R. G., Silvana, D. C., Josino, C. (2005). Dietary intake and health effects of selected toxic elements. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17, 79-93.

Stanziani, A. (2009). Information, quality and legal rules: Wine adulteration in nineteenth century 1531 France Business and History, 51, 268–291.

Tsakiris, A., Kallithraka, S., Kourkoutas, Y. (2016). Brandy and Cognac: Manufacture and Chemical Composition. Encyclopedia of Food and Health. 10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00081-7.

Valadez-Vega, C., Zúñiga-Pérez, C., Quintanar-Gómez, S., Morales-González, J. A., Madrigal-Santillán, E., Villagómez-Ibarra, J. R., Sumaya-Martínez, M. T. and García-Paredes, J. D. (2011). Lead, Cadmium and Cobalt (Pb, Cd, and Co) Leaching of Glass-Clay Containers by pH Effect of Food. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12, 2336-2350.

Vogiatzis, K.D., Polynski, M.V., Kirkland, J.K. Townsend, J., Hashemi, A., Liu, C., Pidko E.A. (2019). Computational approach to molecular catalysis by 3d transition metals: Challenges and opportunities. Chemistry Reviews, 119, 2453−2523.

Walker, G.S. (2017). Food authentication and traceability: An Asian and Australian perspective. Food Control, 72, 168–172.

World Health Organization (2003). Guidelines for drinking water quality, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Woldemariam, D. M., Chandravanshi, B. S. (2011). Concentration levels of essential and non-essential elements in selected Ethiopian wines. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 25, 169–180.

Published
2021-04-16
Section
Articles